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To compare medical care provided by hospitalists and primary care physicians to patients with community-acquired pneumonia in order to identify specific practices that might explain the improved efficiency of care provided by hospitalists.
The main pathogens responsible for prostatitis were found to be Staphylococcus haemolyticus (30%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (12%), Enterococcus faecalis (9%), Escherichia coli (6%), Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus aureus (3%), Mycoplasma urealyticum (8%), chlamydia trachomatis (5%) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (6%). Statistically significant increases were observed in the detection rates of Escherichia coli (chi2 = 17.56, P<0.05), Mycoplasma urealyticum (chi2 = 8.73, P<0.05), Chlamydia trachomatis (chi2 = 8.73, P<0.05) and Enterococcus (chi2 = 8.22, P<0.05), but not in other pathogens. The resistance rates of Gram-positive bacteria to erythromycin and benzylpenicillin G were both above 45%, but with no significant difference between the two, those of Oxacillin (chi2 = 10.06, P<0.05) and Cefoxitin (chi2 = 9.89, P<0.05) were markedly increased, but those of quinolones, gentamycin and clindamycin remained low, except rifampicin (chi2 = 11.09, P<0.05). The resistance rates of Gram-negative bacteria to cefazolin and ampicillin were relatively high (mean 57.3%), and those to ceftriaxone (chi2 = 11.26, P<0.05) and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (chi2 =11.00, P< 0.05) significantly high; those to amikacin, cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem remained at low levels with no significant changes. However, the resistance rates of mycoplasma urealyticum to ciprofloxacin (chi2 = 11.18, P<0.05) and azithromycin (chi2 = 9.89, P<0.05) were remarkably increased.
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To assess the effect of topical sucralfate and clindamycin on local pain reduction after tonsillectomy in children aged 6 to 12 years.
Epidemiological analysis included typing of C. difficile strains and analysis of possible patient to patient transmission. Infection control measures comprised strict isolation of CDI patients, additional hand washings, and intensified environmental cleaning with sporicidal disinfection. In addition an antibiotic stewardship program was implemented in order to prevent the use of CDI high risk antimicrobials such as fluoroquinolones, clindamycin, and cephalosporins.
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The in vitro activities of fourteen antimicrobial agents were tested against 292 clinical isolates of obligately anaerobic bacteria using the broth microdilution technique. Taking all strains as a group the MIC(50/90) (mg/l) values were metronidazole and imipenem 0.25/1, meropenem 0.25/0.5, trovafloxacin 0.25/1, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin 0.5/2, levofloxacin 2/16, ciprofloxacin 4/32, clindamycin 0.5/8, amoxycillin/clavulanate 1/4, doxycycline and chloramphenicol 2/4, erythromycin 4/>32 and penicillin G 16/>32.
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Antibiotic susceptibility was as follows: vancomycin (100%), rifampin (100%), gentamicin (97.7%), tetracycline (96.5%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (95.2%), clindamycin (89.5%), levofloxacin (66.7%), and erythromycin (6.9%). At SSTI presentation, 58.5% of patients had CD4 counts greater than 200 cells/uL, 82.9% had a viral load (VL) below 100 000 log copies/mL, 6 of whom had undetectable VL. All 43 patients received empiric antibiotic therapy. Additionally, 34 patients underwent incision and drainage (I&D). For the 37 patients with follow-up data available at 4 weeks, 30 of the infections were resolved/resolving and 7 had no improvement or worsened.
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One hundred twenty-nine patients were identified as being at high risk for infective complications based on cancer stage, tumor size, comorbid factors, and extent of reconstruction. All patients had intraoral swab cultures before surgery. Patients with culture-confirmed SSI after surgery were chosen for analysis, using the κ index and its 95% confidence interval for concordance analysis. All patients received clindamycin and gentamicin for antibiotic prophylaxis for 5 days. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of all isolates was obtained and analyzed.
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This was a prospective, hospital-based study of oral clindamycin 600 mg and rifampicin 600 mg daily for 12 weeks for treatment of HS. Patients were followed up for 1 year to monitor for relapse.
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The incidence of pediatric infections due to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), including children with no identifiable risk factors, has increased worldwide in the last decade. This suggests that healthy children may constitute a reservoir of MRSA in the community. In this study, nested within a larger one on nasopharyngeal ecology, we aimed to: (i) evaluate the prevalence of MRSA colonizing young children in Portugal; and (ii) compare results with those obtained in a study conducted a decade ago, when this prevalence was <0.5%.