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One hundred one cases of DIV were audited retrospectively. All patients were seen exclusively by the authors in their private practices using diagnostic criteria applicable to local practice limitations. Other potential etiologies (infection, contact irritant vaginitis, fixed drug eruptions, immunobullous diseases, estrogen hypersensitivity vulvovaginitis, and graft-vs-host disease) were excluded by history, examination, and focused trials of treatment. Historical triggers in the study cohort and a control group of 75 women with lichen planus also drawn from the authors' private practice were compared. Patients were treated with 4 to 6 weeks of topical vaginal antibiotics, 94% with clindamycin, and response to treatment was recorded at subsequent follow-up.
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A total of 192 men and 139 women aged 15 to 89 years with diagnosed intra-abdominal infection were randomised in a 2:1 ratio to treatment with either intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam (3 g/375 mg every six hours) or clindamycin (600 mg every six hours) plus gentamicin (2.5 mg to 5.0 mg/kg every eight to 12 hours) in a multicentre trial. Of 147 evaluable patients with microbiologically confirmed infections, 104 were treated with piperacillin/tazobactam and 43 with clindamycin plus gentamicin. The diagnoses of perforated appendicitis (n = 79), other peritonitis (n = 32), cholecystitis/cholangitis (n = 18), intraabdominal abscess (n = 14), and diverticulitis (n = 3), were distributed proportionately between the two therapeutic groups. Ninety one of 104 patients (88%) in the piperacillin/tazobactam group and 33 of 43 patients (77%) in the clindamycin plus gentamicin group were considered cured or improved (p = 0.13). In the piperacillin/tazobactam group, 80 of 88 (91%) Bacteroides fragilis group organisms and 68 of 74 (92%) E coli isolates were eradicated; in the clindamycin plus gentamicin group, 21 of 25 (84%) Bacteroides fragilis group isolates and 23 of 30 (76%) E coli isolates were eradicated. Eleven evaluable patients in the piperacillin/tazobactam group had beta-lactamase-producing organisms that were resistant to piperacillin but susceptible to piperacillin/tazobactam; in 10 of these patients (91%) bacteria were eradicated. We conclude that piperacillin/tazobactam is an effective antimicrobial drug for monotherapy of intra-abdominal infections, with efficacy similar to or better than standard aminoglycoside/anti-anaerobe combinations.
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A list of 515 dentists was obtained from a register held by the Postgraduate Medical and Dental Board. A list of 85 cardiologists was obtained from a national register held by the Cardiothoracic Society of Ireland.
Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), is the most common pathogen causing infections among perinatal women and neonatal babies. Nonetheless, there are few studies on the occurrence of GBS among the pregnant women and the mechanisms of GBS resistance to quinolones and macrolides in Taiwan.
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This analysis demonstrated temporal and dose-response associations between CA-CDI risk and antimicrobials, with an impact of exposure to high-risk antimicrobials remaining 4-6 months later.
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Sepsis-induced purpura fulminans is a rare but life-threatening condition characterized by rapidly progressive hemorrhagic infarction of the skin due to dermal vascular thrombosis resulting in tissue loss and severe scarring. Although most commonly related to meningococcal or invasive group A streptococcal disease, it may also be caused by several other bacterial or viral pathogens including Pneumococcus and Varicella. Purpura fulminans associated with Staphylococcus aureus sepsis is rare but has been reported in adults. However, the syndrome is very unusual in children, and to our knowledge, only 2 cases of staphylococcal purpura fulminans have been reported in children, both due to methicillin-susceptible S aureus in the United Kingdom. We report the first well-described case of purpura fulminans due to community-associated methicillin-resistant S aureus in a child.
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Of the 138 patients with necrotizing fasciitis identified, 129 had their diagnosis confirmed at operation. The mortality at 30 days was 20.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9%-28.0%). There was a significant reduction in hospital mortality in each successive year of the study period with an odds ratio of 0.84 (95% CI 0.71-0.98, P = 0.03). A pattern of increasing incidence was noted until February 2004 (95% CI September 2002-July 2005). This was followed by a significant decrease in incidence. The empirical antibiotic regime of clindamycin, gentamicin and penicillin provides satisfactory cover against 95% of the causative pathogens.
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A survey of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes, performed within the framework of a national surveillance program, has revealed a dramatic increase in resistance of S. pyogenes to erythromycin in most areas of Italy. In virtually all the centers that provided data for 3 consecutive years, the incidence of erythromycin-resistant strains increased twofold to 20-fold from 1993 to 1995 and was greater than 30% in five of the 14 centers participating in the study. The clonality of erythromycin-resistant isolates was studied in 15 strains isolated from different patients at the Institute of Microbiology of Verona University (Verona). The features of the Verona isolates and the substantially different rates of erythromycin and clindamycin resistance observed in most centers suggest that the spread of different resistance genes in multiple clones might be occurring throughout the country.
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Clindamycin phosphate was administered intravenously to 41 patients with different types of infections including osteomyelitis, septicaemia and soft tissue infections. All bacterial strains tested showed low MIC values for clindamycin. Maximum serum concentrations after 600 mg intravenously were 6.0--29.0 microgram/ml, after 300 mg intravenously 2.6--26.0 microgram/ml. The therapeutic effect of the drug was considered good in 26 of 31 patients with proven or probable bacterial aetiology. Side effects were noted in 16 of the 41 patients. However, in only 5 of these the treatment had to be terminated, all due to pruritic rashes. In the 7 cases with diarrhoea as side effect, the symptoms were mild and of short duration.
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Topical clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide have each demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of acne vulgaris. When used in tandem, they promise greater efficacy than either individual agent through their antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects.
A total of 46.7% of staphylococci were positive for cMLS(B); 3.3% for iMLS(B) and 3.3% for MS(B). One or more erm genes were present in 50.1% of isolates. The gene ermA was detected in 49 isolates, ermC in 29 and ermB in 3.
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The preparation of a series of analogues of clindamycin is described in which the naturally occurring five-membered cyclic amino acid amide portion of the molecule is replaced by a four-, six-, or seven-membered cyclic amino acid amide. The most interesting compound is pirlimycin (7e, U-57,930E), in which the (2S-trans)-4-n-propylhygramide portion of clindamycin is replaced by (2S-cis)-4-ethylpipecolamide. This structural modification results in significantly favorable changes in toxicity, metabolism, and antibacterial potency. Although the in vitro antibacterial activity of clindamycin and pirlimycin are nearly identical, the latter compound is 2-20 times more active than clindamycin when administered to mice experimentally infected with strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacteroides fragilis, and Plasmodium berghei. Pirlimycin is absorbed in rats and mice following both subcutaneous and oral administration. It readily penetrates B. fragilis induced abscesses in mice and is sequestered within these abscesses. A drug concentration of at least 60 times the required inhibitory concentration is maintained for 6 h following a single subcutaneous dose of 200 mg/kg. Urinary excretion of total bioactivity consists only of intact pirlimycin with no other antibacterially active metabolites being detected. Pirlimycin is tolerated well in rats and mice at the administered levels.