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Clindamax

Clindamax is used for treating serious infections caused by certain bacteria. Clindamax is a lincomycin antibiotic. Clindamax kills sensitive bacteria by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.

Other names for this medication:
Antirobe, Basocin, Biodaclin, Chloramphenicol, Clendix, Cleocin, Clidan, Climadan, Clinacin, Clinda, Clindacin, Clindacne, Clindagel, Clindahexal, Clindal, Clindamicina, Clindasol, Clindesse, Clindets, Clinium, Clinsol, Clinwas, Cutaclin, Dalacin, Dentomycin, Derma, Dermabel, Evoclin, Klimicin, Klindamicin, Klindan, Mediklin, Sobelin, Tidact, Ziana, Zindaclin

Similar Products:
Clinda derm, Clindagel, Clindets

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Also known as:  Cleocin.

Description

Clindamax is a prescription medication used to treat bacterial infections of the lungs, skin, blood, bones, joints, female reproductive system, and internal organs.

Clindamax belongs to a group of drugs called lincomycin antibiotics. These work by stopping the growth of bacteria.

This medication is available as a vaginal cream, vaginal suppository, oral capsule, and oral liquid.

This medication is also available in injectable forms to be given directly into a vein (IV) or a muscle (IM) by a healthcare professional.

Common side effects of Clindamax include nausea, vomiting, joint pain, heartburn, pain when swallowing, and white patches in the mouth.

Dosage

Take Clindamax exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Follow all directions on your prescription label. Do not use this medicine in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.

Take the capsule with a full glass of water to keep it from irritating your throat.

Measure the oral liquid with the dosing syringe provided, or with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

Clindamax is sometimes given as an injection into a muscle, or injected into a vein through an IV. You may be shown how to use injections at home. Do not self-inject this medicine if you do not understand how to give the injection and properly dispose of used needles, IV tubing, and other items used to inject the medicine.

Use a disposable needle only once. Follow any state or local laws about throwing away used needles and syringes. Use a puncture-proof "sharps" disposal container (ask your pharmacist where to get one and how to throw it away). Keep this container out of the reach of children and pets.

To make sure this medicine is not causing harmful effects, you may need frequent medical tests during treatment.

If you need surgery, tell the surgeon ahead of time that you are using Clindamax.

Use this medicine for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Skipping doses may also increase your risk of further infection that is resistant to antibiotics. Clindamax will not treat a viral infection such as the flu or a common cold.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Protect the injectable medicine from high heat.

Do not store the oral liquid in the refrigerator. Throw away any unused oral liquid after 2 weeks.

Overdose

In the event the patient misses a dose of Clindamax, the patient should take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for the next scheduled dose, taking another dose of Clindamax may cause an overdose which can lead to serious health complications. In this case, the missed dose should be skipped entirely to avoid an overdose potential. If an overdose of Clindamax is suspected the patient should seek immediate medical intervention and assessment. An overdose may involve symptoms such as changes in mood or behaviors, thoughts of self harm, suicidal thoughts, seizures, or convulsions.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Clindamax are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not use Generic Clindamax if you are allergic to Generic Clindamax components or to to tartrazine.

Be very careful if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Try to be very careful with Generic Clindamax if it is given to children younger than 10 years old who have diarrhea or an infection of the stomach or bowel. Elderly patient should use Generic Clindamax with caution.

Be sure to use Generic Clindamax for the full course of treatment.

Avoid alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Clindamax taking suddenly.

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Fifty pediatric cases of acute Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis were randomized to receive 150 mg/kg/day of cephradine divided in four doses, or 40 mg/kg/day in four doses of clindamycin. The treatment was initiated intravenously, but switched to oral administration mostly within 4 days, using the same doses. The peak antimicrobial serum inhibitory titer or bactericidal titer was not measured. The course of illness was monitored by blood leukocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and serum C-reactive protein. The follow-up was extended to 1 year posthospitalization.

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Successful management of anaerobic infection first requires an accurate diagnosis. Cytologic examination of wound exudates and inspection for characteristic clinical clues greatly facilitates an accurate initial diagnosis of anaerobic infection. Knowledge of antimicrobial activity against specific anaerobic pathogens is essential, since antibiotic susceptibility information is not routinely available. Whenever possible, antimicrobial and surgical therapy should be combined in managing anaerobic infections. Chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and metronidazole provide the most consistently reliable activity against pathogenic anaerobes, including Bacteroides. Penicillins are also generally effective, except for treatment of infections caused by penicillinase-producing strains of Bacteroides. Cephalosporins are not considered drugs of choice for anaerobic infections, although cefoxitin may in some instances be useful as monotherapy of mixed infections containing obligate anaerobes and coliform bacteria. Aminoglycosides and sulfonamides are ineffective and should be avoided for treatment of anaerobic infection.

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A 21-year-old man suffered from cough, dyspnoea and hemoptysis following accidental aspiration of petroleum. Chest x-ray and computerized tomography one day after the aspiration showed infiltrates in the lower fields. Fiberbronchoscopy revealed severe bronchitis without any signs of necrosis. Flunisolide inhalation (200 micrograms/d) and intravenous application of prednisolone (50 mg/d) and clindamycine (600 mg/d) improved pulmonary function within a few days. The infiltrates resolved over the following two weeks. This favourable result clearly shows that conservative treatment has a role in petroleum aspiration.

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The ability of strains of Bacteroides fragilis resistant to clindamycin and/or tetracycline to transfer resistance to a susceptible recipient strain in experimental subcutaneous abscesses in mice was investigated. The results indicated that such transfer took place at a frequency similar to that observed in vitro. Transfer of resistance determinants at infected sites may play a role in the epidemiology of disseminated resistance to antimicrobial agents.

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Since antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae become serious problem, we have conducted the epidemiological analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gifu prefecture. We have investigated the mutations of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) cording genes, the mutations of macrolide-resistant cording genes, and antimicrobial susceptibility using broth microdilution method, for 345 strains isolated from clinical specimens between May 2006 and July 2006 at 12 clinical facilities of 5 medical area. The ratio of penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (gPSSP), penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (gPISP), and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (gPRSP), which were judged by molecular techniques, were 7.2%, 53.5%, and 39.4%, respectively. Only 1 gPSSP strain was isolated from children under three years old. There have been regional differences of the isolation rate of gPRSP between Gifu/Chuno area (55-60%) and Tono/Hida area (23-32%) in second- or third-medical facilities. The isolation rate of PBP mutation genes, pbp2x, pbp1a and pbp2b, were 92.8%, 52.5% and 53.3%, respectively. The isolation rate of macrolide-resistant cording genes, mefA only, ermB only, and both mefA and ermB, were 30%, 50% and 8%, respectively. The strains of S. pneumoniae with both mefA and ermB mutations, increased from 4% in 2002 to 8% in 2006. The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to penicillin G (PCG) showed two peaks around 0.03 and 1 microg/mL, and 89% of S. pneumoniae with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value 1 microg/mL was gPRSP. The MIC values of PCG against 69% strains of gPRSP distributed between 0.25 and 1 microg/mL. There have been the decreased tendency for the differences among medical facilities in penicillin resistant strains. Although cefditoren showed the most effective antimicrobial activity in oral cephems tested, there have been the strains with MIC value of over 1 microg/mL. The MIC90 of panipenem was 0.125 microg/mL, which was the best antimicrobial activity in carbapenems. The resistant rates of clarithromycin and azithromycin were 85% and 84%, respectively. The strains with the gene mutation of ermB have showed resistant to clindamycin. The MIC90 of tosufloxacin was 0.25 microg/mL, which was the best antimicrobial activity in quinolones. We have detected 4 levofloxacin highly resistant S. pneumoniae, of which MIC value was over 32 microg/mL. Also, we have encountered the episode of the spread of S. pneumoniae in one family, which was clarified by scientific approach.

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Time-kill studies examined the activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647), erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and metronidazole against 11 gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Time-kill studies were carried out with the addition of Oxyrase in order to prevent the introduction of CO(2). Macrolide-azalide-ketolide MICs were 0.004 to 32.0 microg/ml. Of the latter group, telithromycin had the lowest MICs, especially against non-Bacteroides fragilis group strains, followed by azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, and roxithromycin. Clindamycin was active (MIC /=99.9% killing) against 6 strains, with 99% killing of 9 strains and 90% killing of 10 strains. After 24 h at twice the MIC, 90, 99, and 99.9% killing of nine, six, and three strains, respectively, occurred. Lower rates of killing were seen at earlier times. Similar kill kinetics relative to the MIC were seen with other macrolides. After 48 h at the MIC, clindamycin was bactericidal against 8 strains, with 99 and 90% killing of 9 and 10 strains, respectively. After 24 h, 90% killing of 10 strains occurred at the MIC. The kinetics of clindamycin were similar to those of pristinamycin. After 48 h at the MIC, amoxicillin-clavulanate showed 99.9% killing of seven strains, with 99% killing of eight strains and 90% killing of nine strains. At four times the MIC, metronidazole was bactericidal against 8 of 10 strains tested after 48 h and against all 10 strains after 24 h; after 12 h, 99% killing of all 10 strains occurred.

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Multiple large flap lacerations (2 x 3 to 60 x 60 cm) at various body sites were characteristic. Lower extremities were mostly affected (88%), followed by upper extremities (29%), and head (18%). Two-thirds of patients presented with combined injuries to the thorax or fractures. Near-drowning involved the aspiration of immersion fluids, marine and soil debris into the respiratory tract and all patients displayed signs of pneumonitis and pneumonia upon arrival. Three patients presented with severe sinusitis. Microbiology identified a variety of common but also uncommon isolates that were often multi-resistant. Wound management included aggressive debridement together with vacuum-assisted closure in the interim between initial wound surgery and secondary closure. All patients received empiric anti-infective therapy using quinolones and clindamycin, later adapted to incoming results from microbiology and resistance patterns. This approach was effective in all but one patient who died due to severe fungal sepsis. All patients displayed severe signs of post-traumatic stress response.

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A susceptibility survey of 537 strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group from eight centers in the United States was continued at the Tufts New England Medical Center in 1982. The results were compared with those of 755 organisms analyzed in 1981. Nine antimicrobial agents were tested by an agar dilution method. The respective percentages of resistance for 1981 and 1982 were as follows (%): cefoxitin, 8 and 10; moxalactam, 22 and 12; cefotaxime, 54 and 48; cefoperazone, 57 and 54; piperacillin, 12 and 7; clindamycin, 6 and 3; metronidazole, 0 and 0; chloramphenicol, 0 and 0; and tetracycline, 63 and 59. Regional differences in resistance rates were found. Declines in resistance to moxalactam, piperacillin, and clindamycin were noted at the participating hospitals. An outbreak of cefoxitin resistance was noted at the Tufts New England Medical Center, where the rate increased from 14 to 30%. The various species of the B. fragilis group had differing patterns of resistance; B. fragilis was the most susceptible species. Significant cross resistance among the beta-lactam agents was found. These data indicate the need to determine the susceptibility patterns of the B. fragilis group organisms within each hospital.

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The in-vitro activities of 20 antibiotics against 227 consecutive non-duplicate S. aureus isolates from clinical samples in KZN province, South Africa were determined by the disk-diffusion technique. Isolates resistant to oxacillin and mupirocin were confirmed by PCR detection of the mecA and mup genes respectively. PCR-RFLP of the coagulase gene was employed in the characterization of MSSA and MRSA.

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The anti-Pneumocystis carinii drug effects on mitogen-, antigen-, and interleukin-2-induced proliferative responses and on natural killer (NK) cell-mediated activity were analyzed in vivo (rats) and in vitro (normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells). Splenocytes derived from in vivo piritrexim- and clindamycin-treated rats showed a significant inhibition of mitogen-induced proliferative responses. In vitro exposure to clindamycin, piritrexim, and pyrimethamine caused an inhibition of human T lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogen, antigen, and interleukin-2 stimulation. Rat NK cell-mediated cytotoxic activity was not affected by the drugs, and human NK cell activity was reduced only at the highest concentration (10 micrograms/ml) of the drugs. The potential immunotoxicity of the long-term administration of these agents in humans needs further investigation.

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S. aureus two hours survival rates in polymorphonuclear leukocytes were 13.5 +/- 4.4 x 10(6), 10.5 +/- 4.0 x 10(6), 11.0 +/- 4.0 x 10(6), using polymorphonuclear leukocytes from controls and patients, with control and autologous sera respectively (p greater than 0.05). We have observed a bactericidal activity defect in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from one patient and in the sera of 7 other patients. The incubation with clindamycin (10 MIC) reduces the number of cfu/ml to 2.1 +/- 0.9 x 10(6), 1.1 +/- 0.7 x 10(6) y 1.9 +/- 1.1 x 10(6), and we also detected and additional inhibition of 81.7 +/- 7%, 70.7 +/- 17% and 79.0 +/- 4% respectively.

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The frequency of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CdAD) was prospectively determined in a population of 2462 patients recruited from five Swedish hospitals, including divisions for infectious diseases, orthopaedics, surgery, geriatrics, nephrology and internal medicine. AAD developed in 4.9% of the treated patients. Faecal samples were obtained from 69% of patients with AAD and 55.4% were positive for C. difficile cytotoxin B. The frequency of AAD varied from 1.8 to 6.9% at the participating centres (P < 0.001). The frequency of AAD also varied considerably between medical disciplines and wards within different hospitals and was highest in the nephrology and geriatric units (6.7 and 7.1%, respectively). There was no difference in frequency of AAD when analysed with respect to gender or age. Medical interventions (laxative treatment, endoscopy and abdominal surgery) or presence of one concomitant disease (diabetes, malignancy, chronic renal disease and inflammatory bowel disease) did not significantly affect the frequency of AAD, whereas patients suffering from two or more of these illnesses had significantly (P = 0.001) higher frequencies of AAD. Patients treated with antibiotics for 3 days had a significantly (P = 0.009) lower frequency of AAD than those treated for longer periods. Treatment with cephalosporins, clindamycin or broad-spectrum penicillins was associated with an increased risk of AAD. With specimens from one centre, 62.5% of tested patients with AAD and 33.8% of asymptomatic patients were positive for cytotoxin B. Although C. difficile cytotoxin B in stool samples was significantly associated with AAD (P = 0.003), the causal relationship with diarrhoea is not always evident.

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clindamax 500 mg 2016-07-07

The penicillin-metronidazole combination is well tried antibiotic therapy for Metrogyl Gel Use In Dentistry the treatment of inflammations of dental origin. However, because of the rising number of penicillin-resistant bacterium strains and penicillin allergies, other antibiotics too are being applied ever more frequently. The literature data and the authors' own experience indicate that clindamycin (Dalacin C) may be used effectively against mixed infections of the oral cavity. A detailed account of the patients and the methods will be reported in the following article.

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The American Heart Association recently revised its guidelines for the prevention of bacterial endocarditis. These guidelines are meant to aid physicians, dentists and other health care providers, but they are not intended to define the standard of care or to serve as a substitute for clinical judgment. In the guidelines, cardiac conditions are stratified into high-, moderate- and negligible-risk categories based on the potential outcome if endocarditis develops. Procedures that may cause bacteremia and for which prophylaxis is recommended are clearly specified. In addition, an algorithm has been developed to more clearly define when prophylaxis is recommended in patients with mitral valve prolapse. For oral and dental procedures, the standard prophylactic regimen is a single dose of oral amoxicillin (2 g in adults and 50 mg per kg in children), but a follow-up dose is no longer recommended. Clindamycin and other alternatives are recommended for use in patients who are allergic to penicillin. For gastrointestinal and genitourinary procedures, the prophylactic regimens have been simplified. The new recommendations are meant to more Curam Sandoz 625 Mg clearly define when prophylaxis is or is not recommended, to improve compliance, to reduce cost and the incidence of gastrointestinal side effects, and to approach more uniform worldwide recommendations.

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Antimicrobial susceptibility of Legionella spp. has rarely been studied in Floxin Antibiotic Korea. Therefore, we aimed to determine the susceptibility of Legionella spp. to various antibiotics.

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Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a frequent and severe complication that occurs in patient with cirrhosis and ascites. It occurs in 10% to 30% of patients admitted to hospital. The organisms that cause SBP are predominantly enteric. Escherichia coli is the most frequent recovered pathogen, and Gram-positive bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus spp., are being considered an emerging causative agent of SBP. Streptococcus bovis that may be found as part of the commensal bowel flora in about 10% of healthy adults constitute an uncommon cause of peritonitis that was first reported in 1994. We describe the first case of SBP at the University Hospital Metronidazole Kitten Dosage of Santa Maria (HUSM) caused by S. bovis, resistant to the antibiotics erythromycin and clindamycin (inducible clindamycin resistance detected by disk diffusion test using the D-zone test).

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We describe a case of surgical wound infection due to Staphylococcus sciuri. The isolated strain was susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin and resistant to gentamicin, clindamycin, rifampicin, methicillin, ampicillin and ceftriaxone. The multiresistance of the strain had a serious impact on the prolonged course of the infection. Although this bacterium is principally found in animals, Clinda Natural Scar Gel our strain was probably of nosocomial origin.

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In an attempt to inhibit the biosynthesis of the type-specific M protein usually expressed on surface fimbriae group A Streptococcus pyogenes delta 2305 was cultivated in Todd-Hewitt broth containing 10% human serum and subinhibitory concentrations of either josamycin, erythromycin or clindamycin. Electron microscopy revealed that the antibiotic-pretreatment had little visible effect on the surface structures of the streptococci. However, josamycin and clindamycin-pretreated bacteria adhered less to hydrophobic gels than erythromycin-pretreated or untreated control cultures. Due to the decrease in surface hydrophobicity, the drug-pretreated bacteria also activated Macrobid Storage complement more readily and fixed more C3 on their surface. Consequently the killing of josamycin and clindamycin-pretreated bacteria by polymorphonuclear leucocytes was significantly enhanced. Similar findings were obtained when the M protein was removed from the bacteria by digestion with trypsin. These results suggest that josamycin, like clindamycin, reverses the capacity of group A streptococci to resist opsonization by normal human serum and interferes with the adhesion of the organisms to host epithelial cell surfaces.

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Antibiotic irrigation solutions containing neomycin may produce unwanted adverse systemic effects of deafness and prolonged neuromuscular blockade, even with only brief application within the peritoneal cavity. Concurrent end-stage renal disease, Azithromycin Dosage Urinary Tract Infection visceral inflammation from chronic dialysis and laparotomy, and the concomitant use of other medications may have contributed to these unwanted effects.

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Five patients presented with fever and blood cultures positive for fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli after Is Loxof 500 An Antibiotic prostate needle biopsy with pre-procedure fluoroquinolone antimicrobial prophylaxis. The cases are described and the published data reviewed.

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There have been 79 randomised antibiotic studies in intra-abdominal infections retrieved. The overall success rate of the studied antibiotics ranges from 70-100%. Unfortunately only about one fourth of the studies have used a disease severity classification, e.g., APACHE II score, despite clear recommendations by the Surgical Infections Society of North America. The mortality rate in the published antibiotic studies is still rather low (approximately 4%) and does not correspond to the average mortality in peritonitis (30-40%). Failure analysis is not uniform and only performed in about 1/5 of retrieved studies. Failure analysis included data on diagnosis, type of operation, pathogen isolated at first operation, susceptibility and persistence of pathogen, re-operation or change of antibiotic regimen, and follow-up (ICU duration, death or survival, hospitalisation). Only one study has performed an analysis of the adequacy of the surgical treatment (source control). The clinical success rate of the antibiotics studied in a larger population is comparable for gentamicin + clindamycin (80%), tobramycin + clindamycin (83%), meropenem (89%), imipenem (85%), aztreonam + clindamycin (89%), cefoxitin (88%), cefotetan (92%), moxalactam (83%), cefotaxime + metronidazole (87%), ampicillin/sulbactam (87%). Piperacillin/tazobactam has in most studies a success rate of approximately 90%. The aggregated data on adverse events and clinical failure rate do not show a major advantage for any of these antibiotics. It is striking that the adverse event rate reported for ticarcillin/clavulanic acid is low when compared to all other antibiotics, which is in contrast to severe adverse events reported for clavulanic acid. The data of quinolone studies in intra-abdominal infections do not yet allow a recommendation, even when it Bactrim Medication is acknowledged that two studies were performed with good results and a good study plan. In conclusion, the comparability of antibiotic studies in intra-abdominal infections is limited due to a lack of disease severity stratification and a relatively small study population for most antibiotics. The clinical success rate of the best-studied antibiotics is similar and the choice which antibiotic is used depends on the expected pathogens and the resistance rate in a clinical setting.

clindamax generic 2015-11-02

Infections after maxillofacial surgery are usually due to aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli. Various antimicrobials, including cephalosporins, beta-lactams/beta- Azitro Tablet lactamase inhibitors, aminoglycosides, lincosamides, and fluoroquinolones, have been tested for use for perioperative prophylaxis in maxillofacial surgery. However, the best regimen has not been determined. We tested the safety and the efficacy of clindamycin plus cefazolin as perioperative prophylaxis for patients undergoing major maxillofacial procedures.

clindamax gel price in pakistan 2016-03-18

Point prevalence study. Nasal swabs were collected from healthy children younger than 7 years of age who were attending a kindergarten in Taipei, Taiwan. A parent questionnaire regarding MRSA risk factors was administered simultaneously. All CA-MRSA colonization isolates were archived for subsequent antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing.

clindamax gel use 2016-12-05

The statistical outcome of this 10-year study has been used to develop schemes of antibiotic therapy in the Department, a necessary component of the Hospital's economic policy at the moment.A major fall in the incidence of nosocomial infections can be achieved by focussing on adequate antibiotic prophylaxis, pretreatment and appropriate treatment of acute infections.