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Overall, presence of bacterial vaginosis (32.5%) at enrollment was associated with pregnancy loss at < 22 weeks' gestation (relative risk 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 6.9). Among women in the observation phase bacterial vaginosis was associated with increased risk of both preterm birth (relative risk 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 3.0) and preterm premature rupture of membranes (relative risk 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 8.9). Within this population (phase I) 21.9% of preterm birth overall (43.8% premature rupture of membranes) is estimated as attributable to bacterial vaginosis. Among women with bacterial vaginosis phase II (treatment) was associated with reduced preterm birth (relative risk 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.3 to 0.9); there was a similar reduction for women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (relative risk 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.2 to 1.4). Women with both bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis were at highest risk of preterm birth (28%); treatment of both conditions (phase II) reduced preterm birth (17%) but did not eliminate this risk. Earlier patient enrollment and oral antibiotic treatment were associated with reduced preterm birth.
The synthesis and evaluation of novel azetidine lincosamides 1 are described. Eleven new (3-trans-alkyl)azetidine-2-carboxylic acids were synthesized via alkylation of N-TBS-4-oxo-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid and subsequent elaboration then coupled to 7-chloro-1-methylthio-lincosamine. The resulting lincosamides differ from the drug clindamycin in both the size of the ring and the position/structure of the alkyl side-chain. SAR within the series was explored with attention to alkyl variants in positions 1 and 3 of the azetidine ring.
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Our investigation including either phenotypic and genotypic markers such as antimicrobial resistance, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), SCC typing, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) detection.
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Knowledge of the chemical reaction between benzoyl peroxide and sulfacetamide and dapsone will help minimize the occurrence of this interaction on our patients' skin.
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In wounds of the hand and forearm treated within 4 h of injury, prophylactic clindamycin, in a dose of 150 mg 6-hourly for 5 days, did not reduce the infection rate. In wounds treated after 4 h the infection rate was reduced, but not significantly so. There was a significant reduction in the infection rate comparing all wounds treated within 4 h with those treated after 4 h. Early treatment of wounds is more important than prophylactic antibiotics, although these may have a part to play where late treatment is unavoidable.
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Articles and published abstracts on the mechanisms and management of group A streptococcal fasciitis.
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Clostridium perfringens bacteraemia is a potentially fatal condition, and its early identification is paramount to maximise chances of survival. Prompt recognition of intravascular haemolysis, a known complication of C. perfringens bacteraemia, can help guide clinical decision-making before microbiology data becomes available. We present a novel finding of severe hypertension in a fatal case of Clostridial bacteraemia with massive haemolysis. A 58-year-old man with no known medical history presented to the emergency department with malaise, fever and hypertension. He developed abdominal pain and a hepatic abscess was identified on CT imaging. Within 4 h of presentation, he developed massive intravascular haemolysis, extreme hypertension, pulmonary oedema and respiratory failure. He died less than 8 h after presentation. His blood cultures subsequently grew C. perfringens. This case underscores the importance of early recognition of intravascular haemolysis complicating C. perfringens bacteraemia, and discusses the rare complication of hypertensive emergency in this setting.
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Necrotizing fasciitis should be suspected in any child with a history of varicella infection and an increasing complaint of pain and swelling in an extremity or other body area associated with increasing fever, erythema, lethargy and irritability. Emergent surgical debridement and intensive antibiotic therapy are essential to prevent muscle necrosis, major limb dysfunction and death.
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This study demonstrates cephazolin and clindamycin can penetrate the infected and normal NP. The antibiotics charge influences the delivery. Furthermore, infection condition selectively promotes antibiotic distribution within NP.
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determination of PPB, bacterial growth and antimicrobial killing was performed in Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) containing various amounts of human albumin or serum. [(3)H]clindamycin was used to investigate clindamycin penetration into Staphylococcus aureus.
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We updated our searches, to July 2014, of: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Science Citation Index (from 1988). We searched five trials registers and checked reference lists for further relevant studies.