The resistance to inhibitors of cell wall synthesis was recorded at 39.17%, protein synthesis inhibitors 19.67%, folate antagonists 47.78% and quinolone in 1.11%. S. pneumoniae has shown drug resistance to erythromycin in 45%, clindamycin in 45%, chloramphenicol-0.56%, rifampicin-6.11%, tetracycline-4.67%, penicillin-G in 4.44%, oxacillin in 73.89%, ciprofloxacin in 1.11% and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 5.34% of cases.
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The medical files of patients diagnosed with orbital cellulitis at a tertiary medical center in central Israel between 1995 and 2010 were reviewed for clinical data, diagnosis, complications, and type of treatment. Comparison was made between patients treated with antibiotics and patients treated with antibiotics and surgery.
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Corynebacterium sp. are found as normal flora in skin and mucosal sites. They have been isolated in empyemas, brain abscesses, blood cultures and ventricular shunts. About 9-10% of early-onset and 4-5% late-onset prosthetic valve endocarditis are due to different species of the so-called "diphteroids". A 30 year-old white female was admitted after 30 days with fever of undetermined origin. A mitral prosthesis had been fitted in 1977. On physical examination a protomesosystolic mitral murmur, petechiae, retinal hemorrhages and hepatosplenomegaly were detected. Laboratory tests showed 37% hematocrit, 14,800/mm3 white blood cells, 78 mm ESR, urinary sediment: less than 30/h.p.f. red blood cells. A new first-degree A-V block was detected. Blood cultures were negative. Due to persistent fever, progressive anemia, leukocytosis and new vegetations on echocardiogram, surgery was performed. A mitral valve ring abscess was found. Corynebacterium xerosis was isolated from surgical specimens. The strain was found susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, ticarcillin, piperacillin, cephalotin, cefoxitin, cefoperazone, rifampin, gentamicin, amikacin, and norfloxacin. Studies with clindamycin, disclosed MIC and MBC = 0.25 mg/l. The patient received 1800 mg/day clindamycin for 4 weeks. Serum cidal studies showed a peak concentration 1/128 and a titre of trough 1/4. Negative control blood cultures were obtained. She has remained well for nine months after treatment. Corynebacterium sp. can cause "apparently" negative blood cultures. Blood samples should be incubated for more than 15 days before they can be considered negative. Almost 50% of previously described cases have been detected during the six months after cardiac surgery. Mortality has been high (48%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Recently methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from pigs and pig farmers in The Netherlands. In order to assess the dissemination of MRSA in the Dutch pig population, we screened 540 pigs in 9 slaughterhouses, where a representative portion of Dutch pigs (63%) was slaughtered in 2005. We found 209 (39%) of the pigs to carry MRSA in their nares. Forty-four of 54 groups of 10 consecutive pigs (81%), each group from a different farm, and all slaughterhouses were affected. All MRSA isolates belonged to 1 clonal group, showing Multi-Locus Sequence Type 398 and closely related spa types (mainly t011, t108 and t1254). Three types of the Staphylococcal Chromosome Cassette (SCCmec) were found: III (3%), IVa (39%) and V (57%). All 44 tested isolates (1 isolate per group) were resistant to tetracycline, reflecting the high and predominant use of tetracyclines in pig husbandry. Twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to both erythromycin and clindamycin and 36% to kanamycin, gentamicin and tobramycin but only a single isolate was resistant to co-trimoxazole and none to ciprofloxacin and several other antibiotics. The percentage of MRSA positive pigs was significantly different among slaughterhouses and among groups within slaughterhouses, indicating a high prevalence of MRSA in pigs delivered from the farms as well as cross contamination in the slaughterhouses.
Deep surgical site infections (SSI) after spinal fusion are healthcare-associated infections that result in increased morbidity, hospital stay, and health care costs. Risk factors for these infections among children are poorly characterized.
The optimal antibiotic prophylaxis for pediatric shunt-related procedures is not clear. There is much inconsistency among different medical centers. This paper summarizes and analyzes the various prophylactic antibiotic regiments used for shunt-related surgeries at different pediatric neurosurgery centers in the world.
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One hundred one cases of DIV were audited retrospectively. All patients were seen exclusively by the authors in their private practices using diagnostic criteria applicable to local practice limitations. Other potential etiologies (infection, contact irritant vaginitis, fixed drug eruptions, immunobullous diseases, estrogen hypersensitivity vulvovaginitis, and graft-vs-host disease) were excluded by history, examination, and focused trials of treatment. Historical triggers in the study cohort and a control group of 75 women with lichen planus also drawn from the authors' private practice were compared. Patients were treated with 4 to 6 weeks of topical vaginal antibiotics, 94% with clindamycin, and response to treatment was recorded at subsequent follow-up.
A total of 60 MRSA isolates were recovered from swine and swine workers. Two predominant multidrug resistance profiles were identified: ciprofloxacin/clindamycin/erythromycin/cefoxitin/gentamicin/tetracycline/chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin/clindamycin/erythromycin/cefoxitin/gentamicin/tetracycline. All isolates were determined to be spa type t899, contained the group III SCCmec element and were Panton-Valentine leucocidin negative. Multilocus sequence type ST9 (n = 46) was identified as the dominant sequence type. One dominant PFGE cluster and a dominant strain type were identified.
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Ten (7%) out of 143 consecutive interventions in orthognathic surgery were complicated by a SSI. All the SSI were secondary to a mandibular ramus sagittal split osteotomy. The two significantly correlated risk factors with the SSI in multivariate analysis were the length of surgery and the type of antibiotic prophylaxis.
The dosage or the time interval of administration (or both) of many antimicrobial agents must be adjusted in anephric patients or those with compromised renal function. Antimicrobial agents that must have adjustment of dosages include most, but not all, of the penicillins and cephalosporins, the aminoglycosides, vancomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The maximal doses of these agents generally should be decreased in proportion with the extent of reduction in renal function. The dosage of chloramphenicol, clindamycin, rifampin, nafcillin, and ceftriaxone probably need not be adjusted if hepatic function is essentially normal. The suggested doses are relatively crude guidelines to initial antimicrobial therapy. Serum antimicrobial assays are frequently indicated for accurate adjustment of the dosage, especially with the amino-glycosides. The efficacy of therapy and the possible occurrence of toxicity should be monitored in all patients but particularly in those with renal insufficiency. Recommendations for patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis are not included in this article.
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The resistance to antimicrobial agents among Staphylococci is an increasing problem. The resistance to macrolide can be mediated by msr A gene coding for efflux mechanism or via erm gene encoding for enzymes that confer inducible or constitutive resistance to macrolide, lincosamide and Type B streptogramin.
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Different aerobic and anaerobic bacterial species were either resistant against a number of antibiotics or showed high minimal inhibitory concentrations against clinically relevant antibiotics. Five aerobic and 2 anaerobic isolates, including Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus fermentum, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces viscosus, Prevotella buccae, and Propionibacterium acidifaciens, were characterized as being high biofilm producers, whereas 8 aerobic and 3 anaerobic isolates were found to be moderate biofilm producers. Most isolates with resistance or markedly high minimal inhibitory concentration values were also either moderate biofilm producers or high biofilm producers.