The objective of the study was to analyze surgical site infection (SSI) frequency with different duration antibiotic courses to establish the minimum necessary duration.
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In this pooled analysis of data from 7 randomized, single-blind, crossover trials, children between the ages of 4 and 8 years preferred the taste of cefdinir oral suspension to that of other pediatric antibiotic suspensions. Based on smile-face scores, subjects found the smell of cefdinir oral suspension to be at least as good as that of the comparators.
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Departments of internal medicine at six German hospitals.
Median plasma and tissue amoxicillin concentrations were respectively 4.7 microg/ml (IQR 2.1-8.0; min-max 0.4-14.3) and 1.1 microg/g (IQR 0.4-2.1; min-max 0.4-12.9), considerably below the selected target MIC of pathogens involved in the upper respiratory tract infections (S. aureus, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis). 20 Children showed undetectable amoxicillin levels in one or both tonsils. Interestingly, 7 out of these patients (35%) had plasma concentrations higher than the target MIC (8 microg/ml). No patient displayed plasma concentrations under the limit of sensitivity of the method. Poor core-plasma and left-right core correlation was observed among patients, suggesting that fibrosis developed after recurrent tonsillitis may hamper antibiotic penetration.
Escherichia coli was identified in 56/69 (81 %) peritoneal specimens; four isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate, and one other isolate was resistant to gentamicin. Anaerobes were identified in 37/69 (54 %) peritoneal specimens; two anaerobic isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate and one isolate was resistant to metronidazole. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified in 4/69 (6 %) peritoneal specimens, and all were susceptible to gentamicin. Streptococcal species (two Group F streptococci and three β-haemolytic streptococci) were identified in 5/69 (7 %) specimens, and all were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate. Combination therapy involving amoxicillin-clavulanate and aminoglycoside is appropriate empirical treatment in 68/69 (99 %) patients. Addition of metronidazole to this regime would provide 100 % initial empirical coverage. Inadequate initial empiric antibiotic treatment and the presence of amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant E. coli were independent predictors of the post-operative infectious complications observed in 14/69 (20 %) patients.
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The interesting beneficial properties of co-amoxiclav, which result in restoring the phagocyte-dependent response in renal transplant patients both in vitro and in vivo, may make this drug more suitable for the treatment of infections in patients with defects of phagocyte functions.
Serious wound infection after thyroidectomy is uncommon, but actual incidence is not well documented in the literature. In the past a patient in our unit died secondary to fulminant streptococcal sepsis after thyroidectomy for benign disease. This prompted us to audit experience of serious wound infection among British Association of Endocrine Surgery (BAES) members.
This study is a part of the surveillance study on childhood diarrhoea in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands; here we report the drug resistance pattern of recent isolates of Shigella spp. (2006-2011) obtained as part of that study and compare it with that of Shigella isolates obtained earlier during 2000-2005. During 2006-2011, stool samples from paediatric diarrhoea patients were collected and processed for isolation and identification of Shigella spp. Susceptibility to 22 antimicrobial drugs was tested and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for third-generation cephalosporins, quinolones, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combinations and gentamicin. A wide spectrum of antibiotic resistance was observed in the Shigella strains obtained during 2006-2011. The proportions of resistant strains showed an increase from 2000-2005 to 2006-2011 in 20/22 antibiotics tested. The number of drug resistance patterns increased from 13 in 2000-2005 to 43 in 2006-2011. Resistance to newer generation fluoroquinolones, third-generation cephalosporins and augmentin, which was not observed during 2000-2005, appeared during 2006-2011. The frequency of resistance in Shigella isolates has increased substantially between 2000-2006 and 2006-2011, with a wide spectrum of resistance. At present, the option for antimicrobial therapy in shigellosis in Andaman is limited to a small number of drugs.
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To compare the efficacy of 3-day vs 10-day treatment with a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for children with uncomplicated urinary tract infections and to determine the role of host factors, including vesicoureteral reflux, and of bacterial virulence factors, including adhesins, in treatment outcome.
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Recourse to sounding with vein catheters is more and more frequent in hospital environments. At the same time, a perceptible increase in incidents and accidents linked to this constantly growing practice is noted. The multiplication of new biomaterials used in the composition of catheters leads to taking into account the criteria of innocuousness and physiochemical inertia as discriminant elements in the choice of biomaterials. A study in vitro has been undertaken of the interaction between short catheters made of ethylenetetrafluoroethylen (ETFE) and antibiotic solutions widely used in hospital environments. The confrontation concerned solutions of vancomycine (Vancocin), ciprofloxacine (Ciflox) and the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (Augmentin) association. A device has been fitted up and operative conditions have been set in order that the flushing out of the catheters by the solutions be in quality and quantity, as near as possible to actual conditions of use. The interaction marked chosen being a possible release of fluorides ions by the polymer, the determination of this anion has been made by liquid-gas chromatography paired with a flame ionization detection. We show the inertia of ETFE catheters with respect to the solutions examined. Taking into account the initially defined objectives, the conclusion of the work is important and constitutes a considerable factor of security for the catheters user whether he be buyer or practitioner. The model of study making up this approach could very be applied to other categories of materials and therapeutics.
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There are no clear recommendations for prescribing antibiotics to patients taking warfarin. The risks of enhancing the anticoagulant properties of warfarin when it is taken concurrently with an antibiotic are seldom discussed. This article attempts to address this problem and to alert dentists to the risks of prescribing antibiotics to patients taking warfarin. A regimen is recommended for patients taking warfarin who require antibiotic dental treatment.