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A cross-sectional, institutional based study was undertaken and three groups of patients were analyzed, treatment naïve, those on antibiotics and patients on benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and/isotretinoin. The follicular content was sampled and the culture was verified with 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction, genomic sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessment was done for erythromycin (ERY), azithromycin (AZI), clindamycin (CL), tetracycline (TET), doxycycline (DOX), minocycline (MINO), and levofloxacin (LEVO). The four groups of patients were compared for any difference in the resistant strains.
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For S. pneumoniae isolates, 57% were penicillin susceptible while 98% were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate with both interpretative criteria. Cefaclor was the least effective cephalosporin with only 57% and 43% of isolates showing susceptibility with CLSI and PK/PD breakpoints respectively. Thirty-six isolates were ofloxacin non-susceptible (intermediate and resistant); three resistant isolates were associated with high ciprofloxacin MICs (>8 mg/L). There was elevated macrolide resistance with associated high levels of erythromycin/clindamycin cross-resistance (n=22/30) suggesting predominant erm(B)-mediated resistance and 21% of isolates demonstrated multidrug resistance. For H. influenzae, 18% were beta-lactamase producers. Reduction in cefaclor and cefprozil susceptibility with PK/PD breakpoints (94.1% to 41.2% and 62.7% respectively) was seen and only 1% remained azithromycin and clarithomycin susceptible. For both pathogens, lowest susceptibility was with co-trimoxazole.
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be an important pathogen worldwide, with high prevalence of infection in both community and hospital settings. Timely and appropriate choice of empirical therapy in the setting of MRSA infection is imperative due to the high rate of associated morbidity and mortality with MRSA infections. Initial choices should be made based on the site and severity of the infection, most notably moderate skin and soft tissue infections which may be treated with oral antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, doxycycline/minocycline, linezolid) in the outpatient setting, versus choice of parenteral therapy in the inpatient setting of more invasive or severe disease. Though the current recommendations continue to strongly rely on vancomycin as a standard empiric choice in the setting of severe/invasive infections, alternative therapies exist with studies supporting their non-inferiority. This includes the use of linezolid in pneumonia and severe skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) and daptomycin for MRSA bacteremia, endocarditis, SSSIs and bone/joint infections. Additionally, concerns continue to arise in regards to vancomycin, such as increasing isolate MICs, and relatively high rates of clinical failures with vancomycin. Thus, the growing interest in vanomycin alternatives, such as ceftaroline, ceftobribole, dalbavancin, oritavancin, and tedizolid, and their potential role in treating MRSA infections.
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One hundred eleven MRSA isolates from 103 children were studied with 51 isolates CA and 77 susceptible to clindamycin. The CA infections were less frequently associated with prior surgery (P = 0.0039) or a foreign body (P = 0.0001), and clindamycin-susceptible MRSA infections were less frequently associated with a foreign body (P = 0.001) compared with nosocomially acquired or clindamycin-resistant MRSA infections. Clindamycin-susceptible MRSA sources were mostly skin, wound or abscess (69%). Soft tissue diagnoses predominated (70%), but 16% were serious invasive infections. Ninety percent of clindamycin-susceptible MRSA were susceptible to erythromycin and/or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Antibiotic undertreatment (45%) or overtreatment (17%) of children with the clindamycin-susceptible MRSA occurred, but clindamycin appeared to be effective when used.
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Infection with Neospora caninum in three young dogs is described. The predominant clinical signs were lower motor neuron deficits of the pelvic limbs, bladder and rectum. In two cases there was liver infection and dysfunction. The younger dogs had an acute onset rapidly progressive syndrome. The older dog had a similar but more chronic course. The diagnosis was confirmed by an immunofluorescence antibody test. The parasite is sensitive to clindamycin and trimethoprim/sulphonamide preparations, however the prognosis for return to function is poor especially if muscle contracture has occurred.
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Medical and cardiac critical care units in a tertiary care urban university hospital.
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Our aim was to study the antimicrobial susceptibilities and macrolide resistance mechanisms of viridans group streptococci (VGS) in a Korean tertiary hospital.
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Babesiosis is a tick-borne zoonosis. Human cases of babesiosis occur worldwide but have been mainly described in North America and rarely in Europe. The disease manifestations show a broad clinical spectrum including a malaria-like syndrome. Fulminant and life-threatening infections have been described in the setting of asplenia and/or immunosuppression.
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Empiric therapy for M hominis infection should be considered in patients with mediastinitis or a sternal wound infection in which organisms are not observed on Gram stain and are not readily cultured.
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The review summarizes changes in the epidemiology and treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated disease.
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Penicillin and clindamycin seem to be equally effective for the treatment of aspiration pneumonia in children hospitalized for this illness.
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From 1980-1993 group B streptococcal isolates were available for testing for antibiotic resistance along with 100 isolates from a second study period 1997-1998. Of the 100 group B streptococcal isolates from 1997-1998, 18 were resistant to erythromycin, of which 5 were also resistant to clindamycin, as compared with 1 of the 85 isolates from 1980-1993 that was resistant to erythromycin (P <.001). All the isolates were sensitive to ampicillin and penicillin. All 18 resistant strains from 1997-1998 were found to be sensitive to cephalothin.