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30 men with dysentery lasting 72 hours or less.
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The adequate management of central nervous system (CNS) infections requires that antimicrobial agents penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and achieve concentrations in the CNS adequate for eradication of the infecting pathogen. This review details the currently available literature on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antibacterials in the CNS of children. Clinical trials affirm that the physicochemical properties of a drug remain one of the most important factors dictating penetration of antimicrobial agents into the CNS, irrespective of the population being treated (i.e. small, lipophilic drugs with low protein binding exhibit the best translocation across the BBB). These same physicochemical characteristics determine the primary disposition pathways of the drug, and by extension the magnitude and duration of circulating drug concentrations in the plasma, a second major driving force behind achievable CNS drug concentrations. Notably, these disposition pathways can be expected to change during the normal process of growth and development. Finally, CNS drug penetration is influenced by the nature and extent of the infection (i.e. the presence of meningeal inflammation). Aminoglycosides have poor CNS penetration when administered intravenously. Intrathecal gentamicin has been studied in children with more promising results, often exceeding the minimum inhibitory concentration. There are very limited data with intrathecal tobramycin in children. However, in the few patients that have been studied, the CSF concentrations were highly variable. Penicillins generally have good CNS penetration. Aqueous penicillin G reaches greater concentrations than procaine or benzathine penicillin. Concentrations remain detectable for ≥ 12 h. Of the aminopenicillins, both ampicillin and parenteral amoxicillin reach adequate CNS concentrations; however, orally administered amoxicillin resulted in much lower concentrations. Nafcillin and piperacillin are the final two penicillins with pediatric data: their penetration is erratic at best. Cephalosporins vary greatly in regard to their CSF penetration. Few first- and second-generation cephalosporins are able to reach higher CSF concentrations. Cefuroxime is the only exception and is usually avoided due to its adverse effects and slower sterilization of the CSF than third-generation agents. Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefixime and cefepime have been studied in children and are all able to adequately penetrate the CSF. As with penicillins, concentrations are greatest in the presence of meningeal inflammation. Meropenem and imipenem are the only carbapenems with pediatric data. Imipenem reaches higher CSF concentrations; however, meropenem is preferred due to its lower incidence of seizures. Aztreonam has also demonstrated favorable penetration but only one study has been completed in children. Both chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (cotrimoxazole) penetrate into the CNS well; however, significant toxicities limit their use. The small size and minimal protein binding of fosfomycin contribute to its favorable CNS PK. Although rarely used, it achieves higher concentrations in the presence of inflammation and accumulation is possible. Linezolid reaches high CSF concentrations; however, more frequent dosing might be required in infants due to their increased elimination. Metronidazole also has very limited information but it demonstrated favorable results similar to adult data; CSF concentrations even exceeded plasma concentrations at certain time points. Rifampin (rifampicin) demonstrated good CNS penetration after oral administration. Vancomycin demonstrates poor CNS penetration after intravenous administration. When combined with intraventricular therapy, CNS concentrations are much greater. Of the antituberculosis agents, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and streptomycin have been studied in children. Isoniazid and pyrazinamide have favorable CSF penetration. Streptomycin appears to produce unpredictable CSF levels. No pediatric-specific data are available for clindamycin, daptomycin, macrolides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones. Daptomycin, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines have demonstrated favorable CNS penetration in adults; however, data are limited due to their potential pediatric-specific toxicities and newness within the marketplace. Macrolides and clindamycin have demonstrated poor CNS penetration in adults and thus have not been studied in pediatrics.
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Combinations of ceftriaxone plus rifampicin, gentamicin or fosfomycin may warrant further clinical investigation as treatments for gonorrhoea. Using the Etest for synergy testing is a viable method that has practical advantages over agar dilution.
denvar cefixime 100 mg
Of 144 eligible patients, urine culture was positive in 54 of 72 (75%) women in group A and 51 of 72 (71%) in group B. There were no significant differences between groups in resolution of acute symptoms. Clinical cure was observed in 49 of 54 (91%) patients in the group A and in 47 of 51 (92%) patients in the group B (p = 0.68). After three days of treatment urine culture was negative for all patients. No adverse effects were observed in either of the groups.
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Management of sexually transmitted diseases is facilitated by having antimicrobial agents with activity against all of the major genital pathogens. Newer quinolones show promise of being active against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Two quinolones, difloxacin (A-56619) and A-56620, and an oral cephalosporin, cefixime (CL 284,635; FK 027), were evaluated in vitro. All three were highly active against 400 isolates of N. gonorrhoeae, including penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae, N. gonorrhoeae with chromosomally mediated resistance, and isolates with penicillin MICs of less than 1 microgram/ml. Susceptibilities to one antimicrobial agent were usually strongly correlated with susceptibilities to the other antimicrobial agents evaluated, but isolates with increasing resistance to beta-lactams were least likely to show increasing resistance to quinolones. Difloxacin and, to a lesser extent, A-56620 were active against all 10 strains of C. trachomatis, and both had moderate activity against over 200 strains of Gardnerella vaginalis. Based on in vitro activity, difloxacin and A-56620 merit in vivo assessment for management of both C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections, and cefixime shows considerable promise for treatment of N. gonorrhoeae infections.
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Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the most important pathogens causing sexually transmitted infection, and strains that are resistant to several antimicrobials are increasing. To investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility among N. gonorrhoeae strains isolated from male patients with urethritis, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance. The urethral discharge was collected from male patients with urethritis at 51 medical facilities from April 2009 to October 2010. Of the 156 specimens, 83 N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents. The prevalence of β-lactamase-producing strains and chromosomally mediated resistant strains were 7.2 % and 16.5 %, respectively. None of the strains was resistant to ceftriaxone, but the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ceftriaxone for 7 strains (8.4 %) was 0.125 μg/ml. One strain was resistant to cefixime (MIC 0.5 μg/ml). The MICs of fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and tosufloxacin, showed a bimodal distribution. The MIC of sitafloxacin was lower than those of the three fluoroquinolones listed here, and it was found that the antimicrobial activity of sitafloxacin was stronger than that of the fluoroquinolones. The MIC of azithromycin in 2 strains was 2 μg/ml, but no high-level resistance to macrolides was detected.
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Randomization was carried out in 390 patients before enrollment was suspended on the advice of the independent data safety monitoring board due to significant differences in both primary and secondary outcome measures in the two arms and the attainment of a priori defined endpoints. Median (95% confidence interval) fever clearance times were 92 hours (84-114 hours) for gatifloxacin recipients and 138 hours (105-164 hours) for cefixime-treated patients (Hazard Ratio[95%CI] = 2.171 [1.545-3.051], p<0.0001). 19 out of 70 (27%) patients who completed the 7 day trial had acute clinical failure in the cefixime group as compared to 1 out of 88 patients (1%) in gatifloxacin group(Odds Ratio [95%CI] = 0.031 [0.004 - 0.237], p<0.001). Overall treatment failure patients (relapsed patients plus acute treatment failure patients plus death) numbered 29. They were determined to be (95% confidence interval) 37.6 % (27.14%-50.2%) in the cefixime group and 3.5% (2.2%-11.5%) in the gatifloxacin group (HR[95%CI] = 0.084 [0.025-0.280], p<0.0001). There was one death in the cefixime group.
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Ceftibuten and cyclacillin were recognized by PEPT1 with affinity constants comparable to those of natural dipeptides (K(i) = 0.3 and 0.5 mM, respectively). Cefadroxil, cefamandole, cephradine, cefaclor, cefuroxime-axetil, cefixime, cephalotin, cephalexin and ampicillin also interacted with PEPTI (K(i) = 7-14 mM). In contrast, cefapirin, cefodizime, cefuroxime, cefmetazole, ceftazidime, benzyl-penicillin, ceftriaxone, cefpirome, cefotaxime, cefepime, cephaloridine and cefsulodin displayed no affinity to the transport system (K(i) > 20 mM). The uptake into the cells and the transepithelial flux was highest for those beta-lactam antibiotics, which showed the strongest inhibition of [14C]Gly-Sar transport (p < 0.0001). Exceptions were cefuroximaxetil and cephalotin.
The proportion of azithromycin-resistant isolates (minimum inhibitory concentration > 0.5 μg/mL) increased significantly from 1.8% in 2010 to 22.6% in 2013 (P < 0.001). Among 50 azithromycin-resistant isolates, 30 (60%) exhibited a resistant phenotype to multiple drugs including cefixime. The 2 predominant sequence types (STs) identified by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing were ST6798 (por allele 4033 and tbpB allele 110) and ST1407 (por allele 908 and tbpB allele 110) at 40.0% (20/50) and 12.0% (6/50), respectively. There was a statistically significant increase of the proportion of ST6798 from 0% (0/19) in 2010-2012 to 64.5% (20/31) in 2013 (P < 0.001).
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The conjugative transfer of the plasmid carrying the bla(CTX-M-9) gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Virchow isolated from a chicken farm to a recipient Escherichia coli strain was evaluated in vitro and in axenic rats inoculated with both strains, with or without selective pressure due to therapeutic doses of cefixime. The transfer of the bla(CTX-M-9) gene of S. enterica serovar Virchow to E. coli was confirmed in vitro, at a low frequency of 5.9 x 10(-8) transconjugants/donors. This transfer rate was higher in gnotobiotic rats and reached approximately 10(-5) transconjugants/donors without selective pressure. This frequency was not affected by the addition of therapeutic doses of cefixime. Thus, estimates of in vitro transfer underestimated potential transfer in the digestive tract, and therapeutic doses of cefixime did not increase the selection for transconjugants.