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In 1995, changes in our hospital formulary were made to limit an outbreak of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and resulted in decreased usage of cephalosporins, imipenem, clindamycin, and vancomycin and increased usage of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase-inhibitor antibiotics. In this report, the effect of this formulary change on other resistant pathogens is described. Following the formulary change, there was a reduction in the monthly number (mean +/- SD) of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (from 21.9 +/- 8.1 to 17.2 +/- 7.2 patients/1,000 discharges; P = .03) and ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (from 8.6 +/- 4.3 to 5.7 +/- 4.0 patients/1,000 discharges; P = .02). However, there was an increase in the number of patients with cultures positive for cefotaxime-resistant Acinetobacter species (from 2.4 +/- 2.2 to 5.4 +/- 4.0 patients/1,000 discharges; P = .02). Altering an antibiotic formulary may be a possible mechanism to contain the spread of selected resistant pathogens. However, close surveillance is needed to detect the emergence of other resistant pathogens.
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The present analysis focuses on phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of efflux-mediated erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae due to an increase in macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae worldwide.
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The purpose of this study was to perform an analysis of Streptococcus suis human invasive isolates, collected in Poland by the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis. Isolates obtained from 21 patients during 2000-2013 were investigated by phenotypic tests, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), analysis of the TR9 locus from the multilocus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) scheme and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of SmaI-digested DNA. Determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analysed by sequencing. All isolates represented sequence type 1 (ST1) and were suggested to be serotype 2. PFGE and analysis of the TR9 locus allowed the discrimination of four and 17 types, respectively. Most of the isolates were haemolysis- and DNase-positive, and around half of them formed biofilm. Genes encoding suilysin, extracellular protein factor, fibronectin-binding protein, muramidase-released protein, surface antigen one, enolase, serum opacity factor and pili were ubiquitous in the studied group, while none of the isolates carried sequences characteristic for the 89K pathogenicity island. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, imipenem, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, gentamicin, linezolid, vancomycin and daptomycin. Five isolates (24 %) were concomitantly non-susceptible to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline, and harboured the tet(O) and erm(B) genes; for one isolate, lsa(E) and lnu(B) were additionally detected. Streptococcus suis isolated in Poland from human invasive infections belongs to a globally distributed clonal complex of this pathogen, enriched in virulence markers. This is the first report of the lsa(E) and lnu(B) resistance genes in S. suis.
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There are limited data available on macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from bovine milk in China. To address this knowledge gap, MLS resistance was determined in 121 S. aureus and 97 CoNS isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of MLS antibiotics were determined by an agar dilution method, while differentiation of MLS phenotypes was performed by a double-disc diffusion test. MLS resistance genotypes were determined by PCR for corresponding resistance genes.
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Propionibacterium acnes strains are recovered from infections linked to surgical procedures, foreign bodies and septicaemia. This study investigated the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of P. acnes isolates from different systemic infections and determined the genomic diversity among resistant P. acnes isolates with low-frequency restriction analysis of chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In total, 304 P. acnes isolates from 13 laboratories in 13 European countries were tested against six antimicrobial agents by the NCCLS reference agar dilution method and the breakpoints recommended by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Blood isolates were encountered most frequently, followed by those from skin and soft tissue infections, and abdominal infections. Of the isolates examined, 2.6% were resistant to tetracycline, 15.1% to clindamycin, and 17.1% to erythromycin. No resistance was observed to linezolid, benzylpenicillin or vancomycin. There was considerable variation between countries in the proportion of resistant strains, ranging from 83% in Croatia and 60% in Italy to 0% in The Netherlands. Isolates from blood were predominant among the resistant isolates. Seventeen clones and 78 banding patterns were identified among the resistant isolates. It was concluded that antimicrobial resistance has now emerged among P. acnes isolates from systemic infections.
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We found a new variant of the streptogramin A resistance gene, vga(A)LC, in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus haemolyticus resistant to lincomycin and clindamycin but susceptible to erythromycin and in which no relevant lincosamide resistance gene was detected. The gene vga(A)LC, differing from the gene vga(A) at the protein level by seven amino acid substitutions, was present exclusively in S. haemolyticus strains resistant to both lincosamides and streptogramin A (LS(A) phenotype). Antibiotic resistance profiles of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins Vga(A)(LC) and Vga(A) in the antibiotic-susceptible host S. aureus RN4220 were compared. It was shown that Vga(A)LC conferred resistance to both lincosamides and streptogramin A, while Vga(A) conferred significant resistance to streptogramin A only. Detailed analysis of the seven amino acid substitutions, distinguishing the two related ABC proteins with different substrate specificities, identified the substrate-recognizing site: four clustered substitutions (L212S, G219V, A220T, and G226S) in the spacer between the two ATP-binding cassettes altered the substrate specificity and constituted the lincosamide-streptogramin A resistance phenotype. A transport experiment with radiolabeled lincomycin demonstrated that the mechanism of lincosamide resistance in S. haemolyticus was identical to that of the reported macrolide-streptogramin B resistance conferred by Msr(A).
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The purpose of the study was to identify the bacterial composition of the microbiota from acute endodontic abscesses/cellulitis and their antimicrobial susceptibilities.
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Cerebellar toxoplasmosis is an infrequent complication of HIV/AIDS. Early diagnosis with neuro-imaging techniques and prompt institution of appropriate therapy results in remarkable improvement.
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This review addresses therapeutic approaches to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, focusing on recently published data in the English-language medical literature dating from June 2004 to July 2005.
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Solubilized BPO 5% gel monotherapy offers significantly greater efficacy, and comparable patient satisfaction, compared with BPO/clindamycin. The early reduction in lesion counts observed with the solubilized BPO gel in the absence of an antibiotic is clinically relevant.
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Infective endocarditis is a serious disease with a continuing mortality of approximately 20%. Risk factors include a variety of congenital and acquired heart diseases. Infection follows an episode of bacteraemia which is most commonly due to oral bacteria, notably streptococci. Less commonly bacteraemia may arise from surgical procedures or diseases of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts or from sepsis at other body sites, including intravenous drug abuse. Several societies and associations have published recommendations for the prevention of bacteraemia in those at risk from endocarditis through the use of perioperative antibiotic chemoprophylaxis. The recommendations are targetted at patients with defined cardiovascular lesions undergoing dental and other procedures known to predictably produce bacteraemia. The major recommendations for standard risk patients undergoing dental procedures without general anaesthesia is high-dose oral penicillin or amoxycillin. Alternative agents include erythromycin and clindamycin. For those requiring general anaesthesia, parenteral regimens are generally recommended although the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy permits an oral amoxycillin regimen 4 hours preoperatively. For specified gastrointestinal and genitourinary procedures a 2-drug regimen of ampicillin/amoxycillin (or vancomycin for penicillin-allergic patients) plus an aminoglycoside is generally recommended. The emphasis has been to simplify the earlier regimens without compromising the antimicrobial protection with a view to encouraging maximum compliance. The latter continues to be a problem where drug recommendations are either complex or include multiple drug or dosage recommendations. The emphasis on maintaining good dental health is endorsed by all authorities.