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There were 135 and 137 patients randomized to the experimental and conventional interval arms, respectively. Cures were obtained in 94.1% and 87.6% of patients in the experimental and conventional arms, respectively (p = 0.06). The experimental arm had mean antibiotic charges of $250.79 versus $442.49 in the conventional arm (p < 0.0001). There was no permanent nephrotoxicity in either group.
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Susceptibility testing of 161 clinical isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group was performed to compare interpretive results generated by the broth disk elution and broth microdilution methods recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Among the cephalosporin-cephamycin compounds tested, correlation was poorest for ceftizoxime (71%), ceftriaxone (57%), and cefotaxime (47%); when the tests did not correlate, false resistance was seen 92, 95, and 93% of the time, respectively. Cefotetan and cefoperazone showed lack of correlation in 19 and 20% of the tests, respectively. For cefotetan, false resistance was more frequent, while with cefoperazone, false susceptibility occurred more often. Cefoxitin produced the fewest discrepancies; 10% of the disk elution tests produced either false-resistance or false-susceptibility results. Mezlocillin and piperacillin showed lack of correlation in 8 and 14% of the tests, respectively, and discrepancies were due primarily to false-resistance results. Overall with the beta-lactams, 84% of the discordant interpretive results were false resistance by the broth disk elution test. Clindamycin had a discrepancy rate of 10%, with the majority of discrepancies being false susceptibility disk elution results. Because of the high number of discrepancies noted with ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime, we recommend that these drugs not be tested by the disk elution method and that they be tested by a quantitative MIC method such as the broth microdilution test. Furthermore, caution should be exercised when interpreting broth disk elution results with all the beta-lactams included in this study except imipenem. These data indicate the lack of correlation of results between these two tests for many beta-lactams and suggest the need for a reexamination of the disk elution method to provide a more accurately standardized test.
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Increasing rates of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have also affected the microbial profile of breast abscesses.
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No standardized method for susceptibility testing of Brachyspira spp. is currently available. A broth dilution procedure was evaluated and used to test the activities of six antimicrobial agents for 108 isolates of Swedish porcine Brachyspira spp. representing biochemical groups I, II, and III. Group I corresponds to Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, group II corresponds to B. intermedia, and group III corresponds to B. murdochii and B. innocens. A panel was designed with the antimicrobial agents dried in tissue culture trays with wells that allowed a liquid volume of 0.5 ml in each and agitation of the broth when incubated on a shaker. The MICs were determined by using brain heart infusion broth with 10% fetal calf serum. For 10 isolates, the results obtained in broth were compared to the MICs obtained on two different types of agar. Different inoculum densities and incubation times were also compared. The concentrations at which 90% of the B. hyodysenteriae isolates (n = 72) were inhibited in the broth dilution test by tiamulin (0.25 micro g/ml), tylosin (>256 micro g/ml), erythromycin (>256 micro g/ml), clindamycin (>4 micro g/ml), virginiamycin (4 micro g/ml), and carbadox (0.06 micro g/ml) were determined. The MICs tended to be lower in broth than on agar. Differences in inoculum densities and incubation times had little influence on the MICs. The evaluated broth dilution test was simple to perform, the end points were easily read, and the results were reproducible and reliable. No isolates with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin were found among the Swedish isolates tested.
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This study reported on the anamnesis, clinical and instrumental findings as well as therapy in a girl with discitis. The described diagnostic problems and course are characteristic of this frequently unrecognized disease, the cause of which has not yet been fully clarified. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures suggested in the literature were critically evaluated.
In Part 1 of our study, 40 central-third bone-patellar tendon-bone grafts were harvested from 20 adult California White rabbits under strict sterile conditions. Ten grafts were placed directly into a thioglycolate broth, incubated, and subcultured; no growth was noted in any specimen. The next 6 grafts were contaminated 20 seconds each with 2 different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Organisms were grown with cultures obtained from an operating room floor during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Marked growth of both species was noted in all 6 grafts within 24 hours. A subsequent 3 series of 8 grafts each were harvested sterilely, contaminated as described above, and soaked in 1 of 3 solutions 30 minutes before culture. Both 10% povidone-iodine and a triple-antibiotic solution (gentamicin, clindamycin, polymyxin) were 100% ineffective as both organisms grew; 4% chlorhexidine gluconate effectively decontaminated 8 grafts in all cases. Part 2 involved contamination of harvested grafts with 5 common, virulent organisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis. Elimination of all except Klebsiella pneumoniae was successful with 4% chlorhexidine gluconate alone for 8 grafts. Using a triple-antibiotic solution after chlorhexidine gluconate in 6 grafts eliminated this organism also.
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As clinicians increasingly contend with infections due to staphylococci or enterococci resistant to, or failing treatment with, traditional antimicrobial agents, understanding the potential roles of older as well as more recently introduced antimicrobial agents becomes important. Older agents, such as clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, have been used to treat infections due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Among the licensed agents, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline are active in vitro against most strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, but these agents differ in their approved clinical indications. New agents currently under investigation may further expand treatment options.
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A steady-state perfusion technique has been used in vivo in normal subjects to show that at concentrations occurring during therapeutic use (500 mg/1, 1.1 mmol/l) the antibiotic clindamycin reversibly inhibits bicarbonate-stimulated water and electrolyte absorption from the human jejunum. Lactose-stimulated water and electrolyte absorption was not affected by the addition of clindamycin at the same concentration. Clindamycin-induced malabsorption of water and electrolytes may contribute significantly to the diarrhoea that occurs during clindamycin therapy in the absence of pseudomembranous colitis.
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This study involved 88 cases of different types of osteomyelitis of the mandible. Sixty-nine patients had osteomyelitis after trauma, eight patients after radiotherapy, six after dental infection, and six had other causes. Thirty-three patients had septicemic infection. Multiple types of aerobic and nonaerobic microorganisms were isolated from the infection sites. Types of treatment and their results are discussed.
Recent evidence strongly suggests an association between the use of fluoroquinolones and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Resistance to fluoroquinolones has been described not only in the hypervirulent strain 027, but also in other important PCR ribotypes circulating in hospital settings. In a European prospective study conducted in 2005, strains resistant to moxifloxacin represented 37.5% of C. difficile clinical isolates. In this study, we investigated a sample of 147 toxigenic C. difficile isolates, collected in Italy from 1985 to 2008, for the presence of mutations in gyr genes that conferred resistance to fluoroquinolones based on a LightCycler assay. Results were confirmed by the determination of MICs for moxifloxacin. Strains resistant to moxifloxacin were also investigated for resistance to three other fluoroquinolones and for a possible association between fluoroquinolone and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance. C. difficile isolates were typed by PCR ribotyping. In total, 50 clinical isolates showed substitutions in gyr genes and were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Ninety-six percent of the C. difficile resistant isolates showed the substitution Thr82-to-Ile in GyrA, as already observed in the majority of resistant strains worldwide. A significant increase of resistance (P < 0.001) was observed in the period 2002 to 2008 (56% resistant) compared to the period 1985 to 2001 (10% resistant). Coresistance with erythromycin and/or clindamycin was found in 96% (48/50) of the isolates analyzed and, interestingly, 84% of resistant strains were erm(B) negative. The majority of the fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates belonged to PCR ribotype 126 or 018. PCR ribotype 126 was the most frequently found from 2002 to 2005, whereas PCR ribotype 018 was predominant in 2007 and 2008 and still represents the majority of strains typed in our laboratory. Overall, the results demonstrate an increasing number of C. difficile strains resistant to fluoroquinolones in Italy and changes in the prevalence and type of C. difficile isolates resistant to fluoroquinolones circulating over time.