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The safety and efficacy of clarithromycin was compared with those of amoxicillin-potassium calvulanate for the treatment of acute otitis media in children. In a multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded trial, 180 patients (6 months to 12 years of age) with acute otitis media were allocated to receive either clarithromycin, 15 mg/kg in two divided doses (n = 90), or amoxicillin-clavulanate, 40 mg/kg in three divided doses (n = 90), for 10 days. Middle ear samples were obtained by tympanocentesis from 175 of 180 patients. Pathogens were isolated from 137 samples (76%). Eighty-six patients in each treatment group were considered for efficacy analysis. Clinical cure or improvement was achieved within 4 days after treatment in 80 (93%) of 86 patients receiving clarithromycin and in 82 (95%) of 86 patients receiving amoxicillin-clavulanate. Recurrence of infection was observed between 5 and 35 days after treatment in 9 (11%) of 80 patients in the clarithromycin group and in 8 (10%) of 82 patients in the amoxicillin-clavulanate group. Middle ear effusion was found with similar frequency at the end of therapy and at follow-up visits in both treatment groups. Mild gastrointestinal signs and symptoms, the most common side effects, were noted in 20% and 52% of patients in the clarithromycin group and the amoxicillin-clavulanate group, respectively (p < 0.001). We conclude that clarithromycin is a safe and effective antimicrobial agent for the treatment of acute otitis media in children.
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One hundred and eighty-eight children (mean age 3.5 years) were randomized to azithromycin and 185 to co-amoxiclav. At day 10, the clinical success rate was 153/185 (83%) in children treated with azithromycin and 159/181 (88%) in children treated with co-amoxiclav. At day 28, 134/182 (74%) of the children were cured on azithromycin compared with 124/180 (69%) on co-amoxiclav. Also at day 28, signs of AOM, such as abnormal reflectometry (45% versus 59%; P = 0.017), bulging of the eardrum (10% versus 16%; P = 0.059) and loss of tympanic membrane landmarks (11% versus 22%; P = 0.010) were seen less frequently in azithromycin- than co-amoxiclav-treated children, respectively. Adverse events related to therapy were seen in 11% of azithromycin patients compared with 20% on co-amoxiclav (P = 0.014).
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The aim of this study was to establish current practices amongst general practitioners in the West of Ireland with regard to the investigation, diagnosis and management of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children and to evaluate these practices against recently published guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE).
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We conducted a prospective multicenter study in Spain to characterize the mechanisms of resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC) in Escherichia coli. Up to 44 AMC-resistant E. coli isolates (MIC ≥ 32/16 μg/ml) were collected at each of the seven participant hospitals. Resistance mechanisms were characterized by PCR and sequencing. Molecular epidemiology was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and by multilocus sequence typing. Overall AMC resistance was 9.3%. The resistance mechanisms detected in the 257 AMC-resistant isolates were OXA-1 production (26.1%), hyperproduction of penicillinase (22.6%), production of plasmidic AmpC (19.5%), hyperproduction of chromosomic AmpC (18.3%), and production of inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) (17.5%). The IRTs identified were TEM-40 (33.3%), TEM-30 (28.9%), TEM-33 (11.1%), TEM-32 (4.4%), TEM-34 (4.4%), TEM-35 (2.2%), TEM-54 (2.2%), TEM-76 (2.2%), TEM-79 (2.2%), and the new TEM-185 (8.8%). By PFGE, a high degree of genetic diversity was observed although two well-defined clusters were detected in the OXA-1-producing isolates: the C1 cluster consisting of 19 phylogroup A/sequence type 88 [ST88] isolates and the C2 cluster consisting of 19 phylogroup B2/ST131 isolates (16 of them producing CTX-M-15). Each of the clusters was detected in six different hospitals. In total, 21.8% of the isolates were serotype O25b/phylogroup B2 (O25b/B2). AMC resistance in E. coli is widespread in Spain at the hospital and community levels. A high prevalence of OXA-1 was found. Although resistant isolates were genetically diverse, clonality was linked to OXA-1-producing isolates of the STs 88 and 131. Dissemination of IRTs was frequent, and the epidemic O25b/B2/ST131 clone carried many different mechanisms of AMC resistance.
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Methodology employed provided useful additional information on ambulatory practice of prescribing antibiotics and could be used in further assessment studies. Educational interventions should be focused on treatment of acute pharyngitis and bronchitis in children and unnecessary use of quinolones in adults for uncomplicated urinary tract infection.
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Antibiotics are often administered in elective colorectal surgery to prevent wound infection. The tendency for surgeons to prolong the administration of prophylactic antibiotic therapy in the postoperative period is a well-known fact. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pattern of prophylactic antibiotic utilization in elective colorectal surgery and to determine if evidence-based medicine is employed in relation to this practice.
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The successful management of multi-space orofacial odontogenic infections involves identification of the source of the infection, the anatomical spaces encountered, the predominant microorganisms that are found during the various stages of odontogenic fascial space infection, the impact of the infectious process on defense systems, the ability to use and interpret laboratory data and imaging studies, and a thorough understanding of contemporary antibiotic and supportive care. The therapeutic goals, when managing multi-space odontogenic infections, are to restore form and/or function while limiting patient disability and preventing recurrence. Odontogenic infections are commonly the result of pericoronitis, carious teeth with pulpal exposure, periodontitis, or complications of dental procedures. The second and third molars are frequently the etiology of these multi-space odontogenic infections. Of the two teeth, the third molar is the more frequent source of infection. Diagnostic imaging modalities are selected based on the patient's history, clinical presentation, physical findings and laboratory results. Periapical and panoramic x-rays are reliable initial screening instruments used in determining etiology. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are ideal imaging studies that permit assessment of the soft tissue involvement to include determining fluid collections, distinguishing abscess from cellulitis, and offering insight as to airway patency. Antibiotics are administered to assist the host immune system's effort to control and eliminate invading microorganisms. Early infections, first three (3) days of symptoms, are primarily caused by aerobic streptococci which are sensitive to penicillin. Amoxicillin is classified as an extended spectrum penicillin. The addition of clavulanic acid to amoxicillin (Augmentin) increases the spectrum to staphylococcus and other anaerobes by conferring beta-lactamase resistance. In late infections, more than three (3) days of symptoms, the predominant microorganisms are anaerobes, predominantly Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium, or Bacteroides, that are resistant to penicillin. Clindamycin is an attractive alternative drug for first line therapy in the treatment of these infections. The addition of metronidazole to penicillin is also an excellent treatment choice. Alternatively, Unasyn (Ampicillin/Sublactam), should be considered. The mainstay of management of these infections remains appropriate culture for bacterial identification, timely and aggressive incision and drainage, and removal of the etiology. It is usually preferable to drain multi-space infections involving the submandibular, submental, masseteric, pterygomandibular, temporal, and/or lateral pharyngeal masticator spaces, as early as possible from an extraoral approach. Trismus and airway management are important considerations and may preclude the selection of other surgical approaches. The patients with multi-space infections should be hospitalized and patient care provided by experienced clinicians capable of management of airway problems, in administration of parenteral antibiotics and fluids, utilization of interpretation of laboratory and diagnostic imaging studies, and control of possible surgical complications.
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To test the efficacy and safety of amoxycillin/clavulanate (Augmentin), 102 hospital patients with laparoscopically confirmed acute salpingitis were treated with parenteral amoxycillin/clavulanate (1.2 g qid for three days) followed by oral amoxycillin/clavulanate (two tablets of 625 mg tid for a further six days). Bacteriological samples were obtained from the cervix uteri and the pouch of Douglas. One hundred patients were assessable for clinical outcome using several variables including pain scores. Amoxycillin/clavulanate alone was effective in 95 patients (95%). Three patients (3%) responded to amoxycillin/clavulanate with marked improvement but another antibiotic was subsequently added to their treatment regimen. Treatment failed in two patients. At follow-up two weeks after hospital discharge, three patients (3.8%) had relapsed or were re-infected. Adverse drug events included one case of drug fever, one case of rash and one case of severe diarrhoea. Treatment was stopped in all three cases. Gastrointestinal reactions, mainly mild diarrhoea, were seen in 31 patients. No clinically relevant changes in haematological or clinical chemical indices were attributable to the amoxycillin/clavulanate treatment. We conclude that amoxycillin/clavulanate is a clinically effective and safe treatment for acute salpingitis.
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The efficacy of 3-day treatment with a combined clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation (Clavamox combination dry syrup for pediatric cases) and 10-day treatment with amoxicillin against pediatric pharyngolaryngitis and tonsillitis caused by Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus was compared. Among the patients included in the efficacy evaluation (54 from the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 43 from the amoxicillin group), the clinical response rate on completion of treatment was 98.1 % in the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 92.9 % in the amoxicillin group, thus supporting the equivalent efficacy of these two therapies. The Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus eradication rate at approximately 1-2 weeks after completion/discontinuation of treatment was 65.4 % in the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 85.4 % in the amoxicillin group. Even in cases from which the pathogen continued to be isolated, relapse/recurrence of clinical symptoms was seldom seen. Urinalysis, conducted to assess the presence or absence of acute glomerulonephritis, revealed no abnormality in any patient. These results suggest that 3-day treatment with this clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation is expected to provide a valid means of treating pediatric pharyngolaryngitis and tonsillitis caused by Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus.
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Two women were lost to follow-up, and there were 15 protocol violations. Among all 2415 infants born to women allocated erythromycin only or placebo, fewer had the primary composite outcome in the erythromycin group (151 of 1190 [12.7%] vs 186 of 1225 [15.2%], p=0.08) than in the placebo group. Among the 2260 singletons in this comparison, significantly fewer had the composite primary outcome in the erythromycin group (125 of 1111 [11.2%] vs 166 of 1149 [14.4%], p=0.02). Co-amoxiclav only and co-amoxiclav plus erythromycin had no benefit over placebo with regard to this outcome in all infants or in singletons only. Use of erythromycin was also associated with prolongation of pregnancy, reductions in neonatal treatment with surfactant, decreases in oxygen dependence at 28 days of age and older, fewer major cerebral abnormalities on ultrasonography before discharge, and fewer positive blood cultures. Although co-amoxiclav only and co-amoxiclav plus erythromycin were associated with prolongation of pregnancy, they were also associated with a significantly higher rate of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis.