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We describe the longitudinal progress of a 59-year-old Asian male who underwent thymectomy followed by radiation therapy and subsequently presented with generalized urticaria. Revelation of a low absolute lymphocyte count (615 cells/mcL) on initial evaluation prompted further analysis of his immunoglobulin levels and antigen response to a polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PneumoVax-23). Although his immunoglobulin levels were unremarkable, he failed to respond to 11 of 12 serotypes of the pneumococcal vaccine. As a result, he was placed on Bactrim® (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) prophylaxis to prevent opportunistic infections, and his CD4+ and CD8+ counts were monitored over the course of 8 years. His lymphocyte counts 87 months after thymectomy and 85 months after radiation therapy were as follows: absolute lymphocyte count 956 cells/mcL, absolute CD3+/CD4+ 164/mm3 (16%) and absolute CD3+/CD8+ 257/mm3 (25%). The patient was able to discontinue Bactrim® (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) prophylaxis after 9 years of treatment.
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A total of 1142 children with a median age of 3.5 years from 20 selected facilities were followed for 24 months. Of these, 95.8% were assessed for TB at ART initiation and 14.7% had TB. Children on ART were more likely to have TB if they were aged 5 years or older (p<0.01) and had delayed ART initiation (p<0.05). The cotrimoxazole and isoniazid prophylaxes were provided to 87.9 and 0.8% of children, respectively. The rate of new TB cases was 3 (2.2-4.0) per 100 person-years at six months and declined to 0.2 (0.06-1.4) per 100 person-years at 24 months. TB infection [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 4.3; 2.3-7.9], malnutrition (aHR: 5.1; 2.6-9.8), delayed ART initiation (aHR: 3.2; 1.5-6.7) and age less than 1 year at ART initiation (aHR: 4.0; 1.4-12.0) were associated with death. Additionally, patients with TB (aHR: 1.3; 1.1-1.6) and children below the age of 1 at ART initiation (aHR: 2.9; 1.7-5.2) were more likely to be lost to follow-up (LFU).
Managing the infectious complications associated with pentostatin (Nipent), used alone or in combination with other agents in patients with low-grade lymphomas, poses a significant problem for clinicians. Since there is limited experience with these therapies, definitive treatment recommendations concerning prophylaxis cannot be made. The panel members discussed the use of valacyclovir (Valtrex) to provide prophylaxis for herpes zoster, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for Pneumocystis, and acyclovir (Zovirax) for varicella zoster. They also considered combinations of pentostatin with agents such as interferon, rituximab (Rituxan), and chlorambucil (Leukeran) and their effect on the immune system. The biology of B and T cells was discussed, with an emphasis on clinical application.
Because of the widespread occurrence of resistance to sulfonamides among Enterobacteriaceae, some researchers have suggested using trimethoprim (TMP) alone instead of the combination sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) in treating infections with TMP-susceptible organisms. To answer whether SMX-TMP suppresses the emergence of resistant organisms compared with TMP alone, quantitative fecal cultures were made for total and TMP-resistant organisms before, during, and after SMX-TMP (800/160 mg twice a day) or TMP (200 or 100 mg twice a day) was given to 48 patients for 4 weeks in a prospective, randomized study. All three regimens left anaerobes intact and reduced the total aerobic coliform fecal flora by approximately 4 logs throughout the 4-week treatment period. In 11 of 19 (58%) patients taking TMP 200 mg twice daily, TMP-resistant organisms emerged or increased during therapy (P less than 0.01, compared with none of the 12 controls), whereas in only 4 of 18 (22%) patients on SMX-TMP did TMP-resistant organisms increase. These TMP-resistant organisms increased by less than 1 log and were predominantly Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter species. In only one instance did an SMX-TMP-resistant Escherichia coli strain emerge after 4 weeks of SMX-TMP therapy. The slight increase in Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter species seen with TMP alone in this study raises a potential risk of giving TMP alone in settings where these organisms may cause serious infections, as in immunosuppressed patients.
A retrospective review of all patients with soft tissue abscesses from November 2007 to June 2008 was conducted after institutional review board approval. Patients who were treated with open I&D were compared to those treated with placement of subcutaneous drains through the abscess cavities. Both groups received equivalent antibiotic treatment, and all patients were followed in outpatient clinics until infection resolved. The demographics, presenting temperature, culture results, and outcomes were compared between these 2 groups.
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During an outbreak of Flavobacterium meningosepticum septicaemia in a neonatal intensive care unit 9 infants were treated with intravenous trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole. Bacteriological cure was achieved in 8 patients; one infant died of massive intraventricular haemorrhage on the first day of treatment. Apart from prolonged persistence of pre-existing thrombocytopenia there was no evidence of side effects. Trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole should be considered in the treatment of neonatal F meningosepticum sepsis in view of its activity against this organism, good penetration of the blood brain barrier, and the absence of serious side effects.
The prophylactic effect of in-feed medication of conventional pigs with sulphadimethoxine (SDM), sulphamethoxazole (SMX), and trimethoprim (TMP) was tested by using an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection model. In each of five experiments, six pigs were given medicated feed twice daily and three pigs received antibiotic-free feed and served as positive (unmedicated, infected) controls. The following drugs or drug combinations were tested (in mg per kg feed): 500 SDM + 100 TMP, 500 SMX + 100 TMP, 125 SMX + 25 TMP, 125 SMX (alone) and 25 TMP (alone). After six days of feed medication, all animals were endobronchially inoculated with A. pleuropneumoniae in a dose of 1-3.10(4) colony-forming units (CFU). The response to the challenge in all control pigs was characterized by fever, lethargy, anorexia, reduced water consumption, and laboured breathing. At autopsy all controls manifested a fibrinous haemorrhagic pleuropneumonia. In-feed medication with 500 SDM + 100 TMP, 500 SMX + 100 TMP as well as 125 SMX + 25 TMP resulted in an effective protection against the challenge in all treated animals. After consumption of feed medicated with 125 mg per kg SMX or 25 mg per kg TMP, pleuropneumonia was evident in all challenged pigs. The results of this study indicate an in vivo potentiation of SMX and TMP in pigs against this respiratory tract pathogen.
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Both amoxicillin and co-trimoxazole were equally effective in non-severe pneumonia. Good follow up of patients is essential to prevent worsening of illness.