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Eltocin (Ilosone)
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Eltocin

Eltocin (brand names include: Erycin / Eromax / Acnesol / Agrocin / Robimycin / E-Mycin / E.E.S. Granules / Filmtab / Eryc / Erypar / Eryped / Erythrocin / Erythrocot / E-Base / Erythroped / Ilosone / MY-E / Pediamycin / Zineryt / Abboticin / Abboticin-ES / Stiemycine / Acnasol / Tiloryth) is a broad-spectrum macrolide antibiotic.

Other names for this medication:
Erythromycin, Ilosone, Pediazole

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Also known as:  Ilosone.

Description

Eltocin is a prescription medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. Eltocin belongs to a group of drugs called macrolide antibiotics. These work by killing or stopping the growth of the bacteria that cause infections. This medication comes in capsule, tablet, long-acting capsule, long-acting tablet, chewable tablet, suspension, and pediatric drop forms for oral use. It is usually taken 3 to 4 times daily.

This medication also comes in topical solution and gel forms and as an ophthalmic ointment. Do not chew, divide, or break the long-acting capsules and tablets. Swallow these whole and take with a full glass of water. This medication is also available in an injectable form to be given directly into a vein (IV) by a healthcare professional. Common side effects of Eltocin include stomach upset, diarrhea, vomiting, stomach cramps, mild skin rash, and stomach pain. Ophthalmic Eltocin can also cause blurred vision. Do not drive or operate heavy machinery until you know how Eltocin affects you.

Dosage

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Eltocin Tablets should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Eltocin Tablets are prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Eltocin Tablets or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Overdose

If you take too much erythromycin, call your healthcare provider or local Poison Control Center, or seek emergency medical attention right away.

If erythromycin is administered by a healthcare provider in a medical setting, it is unlikely that an overdose will occur. However, if overdose is suspected, seek emergency medical attention.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Eltocin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Prescribing Eltocin Tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Since Eltocin is principally excreted by the liver, caution should be exercised when Eltocin is administered to patients with impaired hepatic function.

Exacerbation of symptoms of myasthenia gravis and new onset of symptoms of myasthenic syndrome has been reported in patients receiving Eltocin therapy.

There have been reports of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) occurring in infants following Eltocin therapy. In one cohort of 157 newborns who were given Eltocin for pertussis prophylaxis, seven neonates (5%) developed symptoms of non-bilious vomiting or irritability with feeding and were subsequently diagnosed as having IHPS requiring surgical pyloromyotomy. A possible dose-response effect was described with an absolute risk of IHPS of 5.1% for infants who took Eltocin for 8 to 14 days and 10% for infants who took Eltocin for 15 to 21 days.5 Since Eltocin may be used in the treatment of conditions in infants which are associated with significant mortality or morbidity (such as pertussis or neonatal Chlamydia trachomatis infections), the benefit of Eltocin therapy needs to be weighed against the potential risk of developing IHPS. Parents should be informed to contact their physician if vomiting or irritability with feeding occurs.

Prolonged or repeated use of Eltocin may result in an overgrowth of nonsusceptible bacteria or fungi. If superinfection occurs, Eltocin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

When indicated, incision and drainage or other surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.

Observational studies in humans have reported cardiovascular malformations after exposure to drug products containing Eltocin during early pregnancy.

eltocin syrup dosage

A study was performed to determine if the pharmacokinetics of bromocriptine is altered by factors that have been shown to interact with other ergot compounds. The effects on bromocriptine plasma concentrations by bromocriptine coadministration with caffeine and erythromycin were evaluated in five male volunteers. Serial blood samples were obtained during a 12-hour period after a single 5 mg oral dose of bromocriptine (alone and after 4-day treatments of either erythromycin estolate, 250 mg four times/day, or caffeine, 200 mg four times/day). There were no significant alterations of bromocriptine pharmacokinetic parameters after caffeine, although statistical power was very low. With the use of erythromycin, the bromocriptine area under the concentration-time curve standardized to body weight increased significantly by 268%, whereas peak bromocriptine plasma concentration (Cmax) increased to 4.6 times the Cmax from bromocriptine alone. Time to achieve Cmax was not altered by erythromycin. We conclude that erythromycin can markedly increase the systemic bioavailability of bromocriptine, which can lead to increased therapeutic or adverse effects, whereas the effects of caffeine require further study.

eltocin ds tablet

The mechanism of the protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic liver diseases remains unclear. Since there is evidence that alterations in the pericanalicular actin microfilament network play a major role in cholestasis, the aims of this study were (a) to determine the effect of the cholestatic agents, taurolithocholate (TLC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY), on F-actin distribution in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets and (b) to assess the effect of tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) and taurocholate on the modifications induced by these two compounds. F-actin was stained with fluorescein-isothiocyanate phalloidin and fluorimetric measurements were performed using a scanning laser cytometer ACAS 570. F-actin distribution was assessed in the couplets by the ratio of the pericanalicular area fluorescence/total couplet fluorescence (CF/TF). At non-cytotoxic concentrations, TLC (50, 100 microM) and ERY (10, 50, 100 microM) induced a significant accumulation of F-actin around the bile canaliculus as indicated by increased fluorescence in the pericanalicular area and by the increased CF/TF ratio compared with the controls. Electron microscopy studies showed significant alterations in bile canaliculi microvilli in couplets treated with 100 microM TLC. Only a few canaliculi showed an increase in pericanalicular microfilaments after treatment with 100 microM ERY. As assessed by scanning laser cytometry, TUDC prevented changes in F-actin distribution when it was added to the medium with taurolithocholate or erythromycin estolate at equimolar concentrations. However, the morphological changes observed by electron microscopy after treatment with TLC were not modified by co-treatment with TUDC. Taurocholate was ineffective. We conclude that (a) abnormalities of pericanalicular F-actin microfilaments occur in two different models of cholestasis, (b) tauroursodeoxycholate prevents the accumulation of pericanalicular F-actin detected by scanning laser cytometry but not the morphological changes of the canaliculus observed by electronic microscopy. Therefore, in these experimental conditions, the protective effect of TUDC appears to be partial.

eltocin 250 mg tab

Inhibition of canalicular bile acid efflux by medications is associated with clinical liver toxicity, sometimes in the absence of major liver effects in experimental species. To predict the hepatotoxic potential of compounds in vitro and in vivo, we investigated the effect of clinical cholestatic agents on [3H]taurocholic acid transport in regular and collagen-sandwich cultured human hepatocytes. Hepatocytes established a well-developed canalicular network with bile acid accumulating in the canalicular lumen within 15 min of addition to cells. Removing Ca2+ and Mg2+ from the incubation buffer destroyed canalicular junctions, resulting in bile acid efflux into the incubation buffer. Canalicular transport was calculated based on the difference between the amount of bile acid effluxed into the Ca/Mg2+-free and regular buffers with linear efflux up to 10 min. Hepatocytes cultured in the nonsandwich configuration also transported taurocholic acid, but at 50% the rate in sandwiched cultures. Cyclosporin A, bosentan, CI-1034, glyburide, erythromycin estolate, and troleandomycin inhibited efflux in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, new generation macrolide antibiotics with lower incidence of clinical hepatotoxicity were much less potent inhibitors of efflux. An in vivo study was conducted whereby glyburide or CI-1034, administered iv to male rats, produced a 2.4-fold increase in rat total serum bile acids. A synergistic 6.8-fold increase in serum total bile acids was found when both drugs were delivered together. These results provide methods to evaluate inhibitory effects of potentially cholestatic compounds on bile-acid transport, and to rank compounds according to their hepatotoxic potential.

eltocin drug

To assess whether antibiotic treatment of pregnant women with heavy vaginal ureaplasma colonisation reduces the incidence of preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes.

eltocin 250 mg

Relative bioavailability of erythromycin was determined after multiple-dose administration of erythromycin estolate in comparison to erythromycin ethylsuccinate both given as oral suspensions to twelve healthy volunteers. The daily erythromycin dose of erythromycin ethylsuccinate was 50% higher than the respective dose of erythromycin estolate; the dosage interval tau was 12 h for erythromycin estolate and 8 h for erythromycin ethylsuccinate. This scheme was planned in accordance to advices of the respective manufactures. Results of the study confirm the differences in extent of bioavailability of both erythromycin derivatives known from single-dose investigations. Furthermore, the experimental data show that a twice daily administration of 1000 mg erythromycin as erythromycin estolat resulted in sufficiently high plasma concentration of the active compound.

eltocin syrup

Treatment of rats with pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) markedly induces rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450p and UDP-GT-dt1, a glucuronosyltransferase active towards the digitoxin metabolite, digitoxigenin monodigitoxoside. The present study characterizes the regulation of these two enzymes in rats treated with different xenobiotics. Like PCN, treatment of rats with dexamethasone, spironolactone, troleandomycin or erythromycin estolate markedly induced both UDP-GT-dt1 and cytochrome P-450p (measured as erythromycin demethylase and testosterone 2 beta-, 6 beta-, 15 beta-, and 18-hydroxylase activities). However, compared to PCN and dexamethasone, both troleandomycin and erythromycin estolate preferentially induced cytochrome P-450p, whereas spironolactone preferentially induced UDP-GT-dt1. Treatment of rats with the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture, Aroclor 1254, increased both cytochrome P-450p and UDP-GT-dt1 activity to about 40% of that in liver microsomes from rats induced with PCN or dexamethasone. Treatment of rats with phenobarbital or chlordane caused a relatively small increase in cytochrome P-450p and UDP-GT-dt1 activity. Neither enzyme was induced by treatment of rats with 3-methylcholanthrene, rifampin or digitoxin. The induction of cytochrome P-450p and UDP-GT-dt1 by PCN followed similar dose-response curves. Although cytochrome P-450p and UDP-GT-dt1 are differentially affected by the age and the sex of rats, the enzymes responded similarly, but not identically, to xenobiotic treatment. This suggests that cytochrome P-450p and UDP-GT-dt1 are co-inducible but not coordinately regulated.

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PL is not an uncommon disease in childhood, with age peaks in the preschool and early school-age years. It is usually recurrent, and shows a seasonal variation with onset most often in the fall or winter. In childhood PL, erythromycin is an effective initial treatment choice.

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Based on our results brand name oral antibiotic formulations do not necessarily taste better than their generic counterparts.

eltocin tablet uses

A chronic Rhodococcus equi metaphysitis involving the distal growth plate of the left third metatarsal bone had induced a longstanding lameness in a young foal. Abnormal hematologic values included mild anemia, hyperfibrinogemia, mild leukocytosis, and neutrophilia. Radiography of the distal portion of MT3 revealed a radiolucent zone on the medial aspect of the growth plate, and small pieces of bone suggestive of sequestra. Treatment with erythromycin estolate and rifampin, aggressive surgical debridement, and cancellous bone grafting helped resolve the bone infection.

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Erythromycin and some other macrolide antibiotics can first induce a cytochrome P-450 isozyme similar to the one induced in rats by pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile and then inhibit it by forming a stable cytochrome P-450-metabolite complex. The purpose of this study was to compare azithromycin, a novel 15-membered ring azalide, and erythromycin estolate for the potential to cause hepatic microsomal enzyme induction and inhibition in Sprague-Dawley rats. The daily oral administration of 800 mg of erythromycin estolate per kg for 7 days resulted in statistically significant elevations of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, erythromycin N-demethylase (3.2-fold), and total cytochrome P-450 content. Approximately 40% of cytochrome P-450 was complexed with erythromycin metabolite. In contrast, the daily administration of 200 mg of azithromycin per kg for 7 days caused significant elevations of N-demethylase (2.5-fold) only and did not produce any increases in total cytochrome P-450 content or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. No complexed cytochrome P-450 was detected in the azithromycin-dosed rats despite liver concentrations of azithromycin that were 118 times greater than the liver concentrations of erythromycin estolate in erythromycin estolate-dosed rats. Although the short-term oral administration of azithromycin produced hepatic accumulation of the drug and elevated azithromycin demethylase activity, there was no other evidence of hepatic cytochrome P-450 induction or inactivation via cytochrome-metabolite complex formation. In contrast to erythromycin estolate, azithromycin is not expected to inhibit its own metabolism or that of other drugs via this pathway.

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eltocin suspension 2017-05-02

More than 120,000 patients are treated annually in Germany to resolve repeated episodes of acute tonsillitis. Therapy is aiming at symptom regression, avoidance of complications, reduction in the number of disease-related absences in school or at work, increased cost-effectiveness and improved quality of life. The purpose of this part of the guideline is to provide clinicians in any setting with a clinically focused multi Suprax Cefixime 400 Mg Side Effects -disciplinary guidance through different conservative treatment options in order to reduce inappropriate variation in clinical care, improve clinical outcome and reduce harm. Surgical management in terms of intracapsular as well as extracapsular tonsillectomy (i.e. tonsillotomy) is the subject of part II of this guideline. To estimate the probability of tonsillitis caused by β-hemolytic streptococci, a diagnostic scoring system according to Centor or McIsaac is suggested. If therapy is considered, a positive score of ≥3 should lead to pharyngeal swab or rapid test or culture in order to identify β-hemolytic streptococci. Routinely performed blood tests for acute tonsillitis are not indicated. After acute streptococcal tonsillitis, there is no need to repeat a pharyngeal swab or any other routine blood tests, urine examinations or cardiological diagnostics such as ECG. The determination of the antistreptolysin O-titer (ASLO titer) and other antistreptococcal antibody titers do not have any value in relation to acute tonsillitis with or without pharyngitis and should not be performed. First-line therapy of β-hemolytic streptococci consists of oral penicillin. Instead of phenoxymethylpenicillin-potassium (penicillin V potassium), also phenoxymethlpenicillin-benzathine with a clearly longer half-life can be used. Oral intake for 7 days of one of both the drugs is recommended. Alternative treatment with oral cephalosporins (e.g. cefadroxil, cefalexin) is indicated only in cases of penicillin failure, frequent recurrences, and whenever a more reliable eradication of β-hemolytic streptococci is desirable. In cases of allergy or incompatibility of penicillin, cephalosporins or macrolides (e.g. Erythromycin-estolate) are valuable alternatives.

eltocin syrup 2017-07-17

Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were exposed to several concentrations of erythromycin estolate (EE). Hepatotoxicity was evaluated using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and morphometric analysis of representative populations of cells examined optically. Results of the two techniques provided parallel information: cells exposed Levoxa Antibiotic Dosage to the higher concentrations of EE had significantly greater LDH release and higher percentages of morphologically damaged cells. Planimetric analysis of a second set of hepatocytes showed increasing swelling of cells with increasing concentration of EE. Severe cellular swelling preceded disintegration, as hepatocytes became progressively more damaged by EE.

eltocin syrup dosage 2015-06-19

Case-control Metronidazole Dogs Skin Infection study.

eltocin 250 mg tab 2017-05-30

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular parasite responsible for many clinical syndromes, including neonatal conjunctivitis and pneumonia. The gold standard of diagnosis has been isolation in cell culture. However, this requires days of processing. Several rapid diagnostic tests are available. Giemsa staining of conjunctival smears, enzyme immunoassay, and the fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody test. Both the EIA and the FA tests show promise as ideal rapid diagnostic tests. Treatment of chlamydial conjunctivitis must focus upon the eradication of nasopharyngeal carriage as well as cure of ophthalmic symptoms. The need for nasopharyngeal eradication is underscored by the fact that it is the source for chlamydial pneumonia as well as for conjunctival re-infection. Clinical studies have shown that oral erythromycin estolate or Synulox Syrup ethylsuccinate suspension 50 mg/kg/day twice-daily or four times a day for 14 to 21 days are the therapeutic regimens of choice. Neonatal ocular prophylaxis is currently under study. One per cent silver nitrate does not prevent chlamydial conjunctivitis but preliminary studies do show favorable results with topical erythromycin. Nevertheless, neither 1 per cent silver nitrate nor topical erythromycin eradicate nasopharyngeal carriage, elimination of which is necessary for the prevention of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia.

eltocin 250 mg 2016-05-18

Ambulatory patients with CAP were identified at either the Children's Medical Center of Dallas, Texas or the Hospital del Niño of Panama City, Panama. Children 6 months to 15 years of age were enrolled and randomized to receive either AZM for 5 days or a 10 day course of either A-C or EE, for those younger or older than 5 years of age, respectively. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Clavamel Dosage and C. pneumoniae were identified by measuring acute and convalescent serum antibody titers and by performing nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs for culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing.

eltocin ds tab 2017-12-27

1. Following single oral dosing of ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, erythromycin estolate, clindamycin and rifampicin to six normal volunteers, antibacterial activity was measured at 1, 3 and 6 h in serum, gingival fluid and minor gland saliva from all subjects and in parotid and submandiabular saliva from three. 2. pH values of all gingival fluid and saliva specimens were noted. 3. Partition coefficients between n-octanol and water were measured for erythromycin, clindamycin and rifampicin. Published data were used for ampicillin, cephalexin and tetracycline. 4. All antibiotics, but particularly rifampicin, were detected in gingival fluid. Only rifampicin and to a lesser degree, clindamycin were present in the other salivary constituents. 5. In studies of secretion of drugs in saliva, both the physico-chemical characteristics of the drugs and the physiological Azifast 500 Tablets differences between individual salivary components should be considered. 6. Parotid saliva samples are likely to be of greatest value.

eltocin 250 mg dosage 2016-07-27

The information reported in a variety of sources on drug interferences with routine laboratory tests (serum concentrations of sodim, potassium, carbon dioxide, chloride, glucose, BUN, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and SGOT) performed by a 12-channal autoanalyzer was reviewed. A determination was made whether or not the information was based on an evaluation of original articles, if the study was done in vitro or in vivo, what medium was used, if the drug level causing the interference would be encountered in a patient's serum, and if the reported conclusions were clinically significant. The review narrowed considerably the list of Para Que Sirve Dalacin T Gel drug interactions with laboratory tests performed by 12-channel autoanalyzer methods. Clinically significant interactions were found for (1) aminosalicylic acid and the test for serum glucose; (2) gamma globulins and cholesterol measurement; (3) sulfonamides and paramethadione and the test for albumin; (4) albumin from placental sources and alkaline phosphatas measurement; (5) erythromycin estolate and aminosalicylic acid and the determination of SGOT; and, possibly (5) medications releasing bromide ions and the measurement of serum chloride. The study showed the need to determine the relevancy of drug interactions to the specific methods used in the laboratory of each medical institution.

eltocin medicine use 2015-05-19

To test the hypothesis that treatment with antibiotics prevents low birth weight, pregnant women whose vaginal cultures contained Ureaplasma urealyticum or Mycoplasma hominis (or both) and who gave written informed consent were treated with one of the following: identical looking capsules containing 250 mg of either erythromycin estolate or stearate (active against U urealyticum), or Para Que Es El Clindamicina Gel 150 mg of clindamycin hydrochloride (active against M hominis), or placebo, four times daily for six weeks in a randomized double-blind study. Treatment with clindamycin had no effect. Treatment with erythromycin initiated during the second trimester had no effect on mean birth weight or on the frequency of low-birth-weight infants. In contrast, women whose treatment with erythromycin was initiated in the third trimester gave birth to infants with a heavier mean birth weight (3331 g) than infants born to placebo-treated women (3187 g) (P = .042). Similarly, in women whose erythromycin was begun during the third trimester, the birth rate of infants weighing 2500 g or less was 3%, whereas in women treated with placebo, the birth rate for low-birth-weight infants was 12% (P = .047). These data suggest that treatment with erythromycin during the third trimester prevents low birth weight in mycoplasma-colonized pregnant women. Whether the effect is due solely to the action of erythromycin on U urealyticum is uncertain.

eltocin tab 2016-07-29

The pharmacokinetics of erythromycin and erythromycin 2'-propanoate were studied in healthy male volunteers following single and repeated doses of erythromycin stearate tablets Zithromax 1 Gram Single Dose , erythromycin estolate capsules, and a suspension. Estolate dosages gave rise to higher plasma levels of total drug than the stearate. However, the stearate yielded higher plasma levels of erythromycin base. Absorption of all dosage forms, except the suspension, was delayed, and pharmacokinetic interpretation of both single- and multiple-dose data required incorporation of an absorption lag time. The absorption of erythromycin stearate was inhibited by food and also by low fluid volumes in fasted subjects. Absorption of erythromycin estolate was increased in the presence of food and was not greatly affected by fluid volume. Although single-dose data poorly predicted circulating levels of erythromycin following repeated doses, trends observed after single doses were maintained during chronic treatment.

tablet eltocin ds 2016-06-24

The activities of Amoclan Syrup Mepha Children 11 5-nitroimidazole compounds have been compared against Giardia intestinalis in vitro using a 3H-thymidine incorporation assay. All the compounds were at least equipotent to, or more active than metronidazole with the exception of panidazole. Satranidazole, ronidazole and S75 0400 A were all about five times more active than metronidazole and warrant further study as potential chemotherapeutic agents for man. No major differences in the response to these compounds was found between two stocks of Giard. intestinalis with the exception of flunidazole. Several other antiprotozoal drugs showed activity against Giard. intestinalis. Berberine sulphate, paromomycin sulphate, erythromycin estolate and sulphasalazine, all of which have been used to treat human patients, showed no activity in vitro.