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As regards relapse rate, this 2HRZE/4H2R2 regimen is effective and useful for the expansion of DOT, and it should be expanded nationally in Japan.
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The study was designed to evaluate the toxicity of anti-TB drugs in male Wistar rats and possible ameliorative effects of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds.
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The incidence of renal tuberculosis has decreased considerably in recent years, but the disease has not been eradicated completely. Sixty-six patients were treated for renal tuberculosis at St. Vincent's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland, from 1964 to 1974. Seventy-five per cent of these patients were under fifty years of age. Diagnosis can be made by Lowenstein-Jensen culture of early morning urine samples. The best drugs for treatment of renal tuberculosis are probably isoniazid, ethambutol, and rifamycin. All patients should be treated for eighteen months to two years and carefully followed since reactivation of the infection is not uncommon. Radical, extirpative surgery has a smaller part to play than chemotherapy in the treatment of renal tuberculosis.
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[3H]-uridine was incorporated by Mycobacterium bovis BCG with increasing intensity as the incubation period was increased. Rifampicin and isoniazid inhibited incorporation of the label rapidly. Similar inhibition was seen with M. tuberculosis H37Rv and several clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis both in axenic medium and inside macrophages. Ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were both inhibitory but clofazimine was not. The combination of rifampicin with either isoniazid or ethambutol produced enhanced killing, but the combination of ethambutol and isoniazid was not synergic. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare isolates from AIDS patients were less susceptible to rifampicin and were unaffected by isoniazid, ethambutol, clofazimine, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The results obtained by inhibition of [3H]-uridine incorporation by intracellular mycobacteria correlated with conventional in-vitro MICs and was reproducible and rapid; a definitive result was obtainable within seven days.
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A total of 6743 pulmonary tuberculosis cases (4903 males, 1840 females) were included in this study. The treatment success rate (including cured and complete treatment) was 88% (95%CI 87%-89%). One hundred and eight-six (2.8%) patients died and 401 (5.9%) patients defaulted treatment. In multivariate analysis, treatment success was found to be associated with young age, lack of cavitation and compliance with treatment.
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The aim of this study was to establish wild-type MIC distributions of first-line drugs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as to explore the usefulness of such distributions when setting clinical breakpoints.
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A thirty-six year old male patient was admitted with abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and fever which had started one week before. The patient had been followed up with predialisis Chronic Renal Failure(CRF) diagnosis for 4 years and receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) treatment for 4 months. In peritoneal fluid, 1600/mm3 cells were detected and 70% of them were polymorphonuclear leukocytosis. The patient begun nonspesific antibiotherapy but no benefit was obtained after 12 days and peritoneal fluid bacterial cultures remained negative. Peritoneal smear was positive for Asid-fast basilli (AFB), and antituberculosis therapy was started with isoniazid, rifampicine, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. After 15 days his peritoneal fluid cell count was decreased and his symptoms were relieved. Peritoneal fluid tuberculosis culture was found positive.
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Development of severe sepsis is inevitable following inadvertent intravascular BCG administration. Therefore, urologists should warn and inform not only their patients and families but also healthcare workers such as nurses regarding the route of administration of the BCG treatment for bladder cancer. Our experience also proved that such a serious complication can be successfully treated if promptly acted.
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Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis and extrensively drug-resistant (XDR) M. tuberculosis are emerging public health threats whose threats are compounded by the fact that current techniques for testing the susceptibility of M. tuberculosis require several days to weeks to complete. We investigated the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based quantitation of mycolic acids as a means of rapidly determining drug resistance and susceptibility in M. tuberculosis. Standard susceptibility testing and determination of the MICs of drug-susceptible (n = 26) and drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains, including MDR M. tuberculosis strains (n = 34), were performed by using the Bactec radiometric growth system as the reference method. The HPLC-based susceptibilities of the current first-line drugs, isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), and pyrazinamide (PZA), were determined. The vials were incubated for 72 h, and aliquots were removed for HPLC analysis by using the Sherlock mycobacterial identification system. HPLC quantitation of total mycolic acid peaks (TMAPs) was performed with treated and untreated cultures. At 72 h, the levels of agreement of the HPLC method with the reference method were 99.5% for INH, EMB, and PZA and 98.7% for RIF. The inter- and intra-assay reproducibilities varied by drug, with an average precision of 13.4%. In summary, quantitation of TMAPs is a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for antibiotic susceptibility testing of all first-line drugs currently used against M. tuberculosis and offers the potential of providing susceptibility testing results within hours, rather than days or weeks, for clinical M. tuberculosis isolates.
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Rifampicin and isoniazid are known to interact with each other in solid formulation environment to yield isonicotinyl hydrazone (HYD). In earlier studies, this reaction was indicated to be catalyzed by pyrazinamide and ethambutol hydrochloride, the two other co-drugs present in oral anti-tuberculosis fixed-dose combination (FDC) formulations. Accordingly, the present study was carried out to understand the catalytic role of pyrazinamide and ethambutol hydrochloride on the reaction between rifampicin and isoniazid. For the purpose, organic bases and amides similar in structure to pyrazinamide and ethambutol hydrochloride were combined individually with rifampicin and isoniazid. The compounds employed were pyrazine, piperdine, pyrollidine, pyridine, triethylamine, diisopropylethylamine, picolinamide, benzamide, ethylenediamine, ethanolamine, diethanolamine, and triethanolamine. An additional study was also carried out in the presence of free base of ethambutol. The mixtures were exposed to accelerated stability test condition of 40 degrees C/75% RH for 15 d. The nature of the products formed and the changes in relative concentrations of the drugs and products were followed by HPLC. The drugs showed different extent of degradation, yielding HYD, and in some cases degradation products of rifampicin. The results confirmed the catalytic role of pyrazinamide and ethambutol hydrochloride. The catalysis is postulated to involve intra-molecular proton transfer during transhydrazone formation process, entailing a tetrahedral mechanism.
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Ethambutol is an efficacious antituberculosis agent. However, its use has been limited by the occurrence of ocular toxicity. To investigate characteristics and possible mechanisms of ethambutol ocular toxicity, we used primary rat retinal cultures as a model. Primary rat retinal cultures were obtained from newborn Sprague-Dawley rats and used for experiments after maturation (DIV > or = 10). Cytopathologic changes were examined under light and electron microscopes. Thy-1 (a membrane glycoprotein expressed by retinal ganglion neurons)-containing neurons and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurons were identified immunocytochemically. Exposure of retinal cultures for 24-48 h to ethambutol induced cytoplasmic vacuolar changes and neuronal loss. Vacuolar changes were partially reversible with the termination of ethambutol exposure. Of neurons, Thy-1(+) ganglion neurons were more vulnerable than GABA(+) neurons. Glutamate antagonists, an antioxidant (trolox), or cycloheximide, did not attenuate either vacuolar changes or neuronal loss. A cell-permeant zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) markedly attenuated vacuolar degeneration and neuronal loss, while the addition of zinc augmented both. In rat retinal cultures, ethambutol induces reversible vacuolar degeneration as well as irreversible neuronal loss, more preferentially of Thy-1(+) ganglion neurons. Contrary to the current theories, ethambutol-induced retinal cytotoxicity in the present study is mediated not by excitotoxicity or zinc deficiency but by a mechanism requiring intracellular zinc. In addition, features of the ethambutol-induced cell death were not consistent with those of apoptosis.