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Evoclin (Cleocin)
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Evoclin

Evoclin (generic name: clindamycin; brand names include: Clindatec / Dalacin / Clinacin / Evoclin) is used to treat a wide variety of serious bacterial infections including infections of the respiratory tract, skin and soft tissue, pelvis, vagina, and abdomen. It is also used to treat bone and joint infections, particularly those caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Evoclin kills sensitive bacteria by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.

Other names for this medication:
Antirobe, Basocin, Biodaclin, Chloramphenicol, Clendix, Cleocin, Clidan, Climadan, Clinacin, Clinda, Clindacin, Clindacne, Clindagel, Clindahexal, Clindal, Clindamax, Clindamicina, Clindasol, Clindesse, Clindets, Clinium, Clinsol, Clinwas, Cutaclin, Dalacin, Dentomycin, Derma, Dermabel, Klimicin, Klindamicin, Klindan, Mediklin, Sobelin, Tidact, Ziana, Zindaclin

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Also known as:  Cleocin.

Description

Evoclin is a prescription medication used to treat bacterial infections of the lungs, skin, blood, bones, joints, female reproductive system, and internal organs.

Evoclin belongs to a group of drugs called lincomycin antibiotics. These work by stopping the growth of bacteria.

This medication is available as a vaginal cream, vaginal suppository, oral capsule, and oral liquid.

This medication is also available in injectable forms to be given directly into a vein (IV) or a muscle (IM) by a healthcare professional.

Common side effects of Evoclin include nausea, vomiting, joint pain, heartburn, pain when swallowing, and white patches in the mouth.

Dosage

Take Evoclin exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Follow all directions on your prescription label. Do not use this medicine in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.

Take the capsule with a full glass of water to keep it from irritating your throat.

Measure the oral liquid with the dosing syringe provided, or with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

Evoclin is sometimes given as an injection into a muscle, or injected into a vein through an IV. You may be shown how to use injections at home. Do not self-inject this medicine if you do not understand how to give the injection and properly dispose of used needles, IV tubing, and other items used to inject the medicine.

Use a disposable needle only once. Follow any state or local laws about throwing away used needles and syringes. Use a puncture-proof "sharps" disposal container (ask your pharmacist where to get one and how to throw it away). Keep this container out of the reach of children and pets.

To make sure this medicine is not causing harmful effects, you may need frequent medical tests during treatment.

If you need surgery, tell the surgeon ahead of time that you are using Evoclin.

Use this medicine for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Skipping doses may also increase your risk of further infection that is resistant to antibiotics. Evoclin will not treat a viral infection such as the flu or a common cold.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Protect the injectable medicine from high heat.

Do not store the oral liquid in the refrigerator. Throw away any unused oral liquid after 2 weeks.

Overdose

In the event the patient misses a dose of Evoclin, the patient should take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for the next scheduled dose, taking another dose of Evoclin may cause an overdose which can lead to serious health complications. In this case, the missed dose should be skipped entirely to avoid an overdose potential. If an overdose of Evoclin is suspected the patient should seek immediate medical intervention and assessment. An overdose may involve symptoms such as changes in mood or behaviors, thoughts of self harm, suicidal thoughts, seizures, or convulsions.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Evoclin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not use Generic Evoclin if you are allergic to Generic Evoclin components or to to tartrazine.

Be very careful if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Try to be very careful with Generic Evoclin if it is given to children younger than 10 years old who have diarrhea or an infection of the stomach or bowel. Elderly patient should use Generic Evoclin with caution.

Be sure to use Generic Evoclin for the full course of treatment.

Avoid alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Evoclin taking suddenly.

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These results confirm that S Pyogenes resistance to macrolides has increased considerably in the Metropolitan Region of Chile during the last years.

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The mean (SD) baseline inflammatory lesion count was 11.9 (11.1) in clindamycin/tretinoin-treated patients, decreasing by 5.5 (6.56) after 12 weeks while the mean baseline inflammatory lesion count was 13.6 (11.15) in placebo-treated patients, decreasing by 4.1 (11.36) (p=0.05 for change from baseline, clindamycin/tretinoin vs. placebo). Clindamycin/tretinoin-treated patients generally demonstrated superior efficacy versus placebo treatment. The clindamycin/tretinoin topical gel was well tolerated, causing little or no irritation, although one patient withdrew due to periorbital edema of moderate severity possibly related to clindamycin/tretinoin gel.

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It has been estimated that 1 million US women are treated annually for salpingitis. Diagnosis of salpingitis no longer requires the patient to have fever, bilateral adnexal tenderness and/or swelling, leukocytosis, and an elevated sedimentation rate. It has been demonstrated that, in contrast to traditional teachings, the recovery of all organisms. aerobes and anaerobes occurs most frequently in the early phases of the disease and the vast majority of women have mixed bacterial infections at the onset of their symptoms. The longer the duration of symptoms, the fewer organisms recovered. In recent years there has been an increasing awareness that chlamydia is important in infections of the female pelvis and chlamydia does not seem to cause the systemic symptoms usually associated with acute pelvic infection. Treatment for acute pelvic inflammatory disease can include cefoxitin, ampicillin, tetracycline, doxycycline, clindamycin, or metronidazole. Further research should study whether those women should be treated as outpatients or inpatients, and the health of the pelvis after treatment.

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Propionibacterium acnes in vitro susceptibility patterns differed among Egyptian patients to the commonly prescribed antibiotics with the highest to lowest resistance to clindamycin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline and azithromycin.

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Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a known causative pathogen of neonatal sepsis, but the epidemiology in non-pregnant adults is less studied.

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The intervention was associated with a significant reduction in the use of fluoroquinolones by 105.33 defined daily doses (DDDs)/1000 occupied bed-days (OBDs) per month [95% confidence interval (CI) 34.18-176.48, P < 0.001] and cephalosporins by 45.93 DDDs/1000 OBDs/month (95% CI 24.11-67.74, P < 0.0001). There was no significant change in total antibiotic, clindamycin, amoxicillin or co-amoxiclav use. There was a significant decrease in CDI following the intervention [IRR 0.34 (0.20-0.58), P < 0.0001].

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We report a case of severe oral infection with a high fever due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus during induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. The patient did not improve on treatment with meropenem, clindamycin, or vancomycin until neutrophil recovery. Since L. rhamnosus GG is used in dairy products, and the patient ingested dairy products daily before starting chemotherapy, we suspected an association between the ingestion of dairy products and the development of infection. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using two different restriction enzymes showed that the strain isolated from the patient was identical to the L. rhamnosus GG strain isolated from dairy products and ATCC #53103. This was confirmed by a PCR assay with species-specific L. rhamnosus GG primers. Since Lactobacillus infection, particularly L. rhamnosus infection, can be fatal in immunocompromised hosts, we should consider Lactobacillus as a causative organism when Gram-positive rods are detected during treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and vancomycin. The causal association between the ingestion of dairy products containing Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus infection in immunocompromised hosts warrants further study.

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A four-way, double-blind, prospective trial of treatment of abscesses by incision, curettage, and primary closure with and without antibiotic cover (clindamycin injection before operation or capsules after operation, or both) was conducted. There was no appreciable difference in mean healing time between the patients given both the antibiotic injection and the antibiotic capsules and those given the injection and placebo capsules, whereas healing times in those given the placebo injection and antibiotic capsules or placebo only were appreciably longer. Four of the patients who were not given the antibiotic injection developed bacteraemia; one patient who was given the antibiotic injection also developed a bacteraemia, but this was caused by clindamycin-resistant bacteria. These results show that a single injection of an effective antibiotic before operation is sufficient to protect the patient against bacteraemia and permit optimum healing.

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Plasmodium falciparum sp, moderate parasitic load, haemoglobin < 10 gm/dL, platelet count < 50,000/mm3 and IV quinine with loading dose of 20 mg/kg are identified as few of the potential risk factors for poor outcome in pregnancy.

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Telithromycin was the first ketolide to be approved in Europe and is in the approval process in the United States. It is structurally related to the macrolides; it has a keto group in the C3 position rather than cladinose. A carbamate group is also present at C11-C12. As a result, it has a reduced induction of the MLSB resistance mechanism (erm gene), it is not affected by the flux mechanism (mef gene), it has higher stability at low pH and has increased intrinsic activity compared with clarithromycin and azithromycin. Phase III studies have shown telithromycin to be effective in the treatment of community-acquired upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Its long half-life allows for oral once-daily dosing. From a pharmacokinetic point of view, its activity has been shown to be AUC(24h)/MIC dependent. It is active against bacteria involved in atypical pneumonia. The aim of our study was to determine the activity of telithromycin in isolates with defined resistance phenotypes obtained from community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Twelve centers in Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay participated in the study. Each center collected three strains of the following species and resistance patterns: S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae with resistance or intermediate resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae, clindamycin-resistant S. pneumoniae, oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus, erythromycin-resistant S. aureus, ampicillin-susceptible and -resistant M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae. Agar diffusion susceptibility tests with NeoSensitabs tablets (Rosco, Denmark) were carried out at each center. Isolates were sent to the coordinating center, where MICs were determined using agar microdilution and the Seppala test was used to determine the resistance mechanism to macrolides. The 327 isolates received were susceptible to telithromycin. Eighty percent of the erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates were likely resistant due to a flux mechanism, and all those resistant to clindamycin were resistant due to the erm inducible mechanism. Only 20 out of 36 strains of clindamycin-resistant S. pneumoniae and 25 of the 36 ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae strains could be collected, thereby showing that these resistance patterns are less common in the participating South American countries than in other areas. The in vitro activity of telithromycin suggests that it is a promising antibacterial drug for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections.

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We examined a large panel of C. difficile strains collected in 2006-2008 at the University Hospital of Zurich. We found that the antimicrobial susceptibilities to amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, metronidazole and vancomycin were similar to those reported in the literature and that they are similar to those reported in other populations over the last two decades. Antibiotic activity did not prevent CDI. For example, thre use of meropenem, which is highly active against all strains tested, was a clear risk factor for CDI. Most of the antibiotics tested also showed a higher minimum inhibitory concentration distribution than that of EUCAST. All strains were susceptible to metronidazole. One strain was resistant to vancomycin.

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buy evoclin foam 2015-09-06

Seven RCTs (1026 participants) met our inclusion criteria, and pharmaceutical industry funded four of these trials. Five trials (854 patients) compared any antibiotic treatment of sexual partners with placebo. Based on high quality evidence, antibiotic treatment does not increase the rate of clinical or symptomatic improvement in women during the first week (risk ratio (RR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 1.03; 712 participants, Where Can You Buy Supreme Hats In The Uk four studies; RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.12; 577 patients, three studies, respectively), between the first and fourth week (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.11; 590 participants, three studies; RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.03; 444 participants, two studies; respectively) or after the fourth week (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.07; 572 participants, four studies; RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.17; 296 participants, two studies; respectively). Antibiotic treatment does not led to a lower recurrence during the first and fourth week (RR 1.28, 95% CI 0.68 to 2.43; 218 participants, one study; low quality evidence) or after the fourth week of treatment (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.52; 372 participants, three studies; low quality evidence) in women, but increases the frequency of adverse events (most frequently gastrointestinal symptoms) reported by sexual partners (RR 2.55, 95% CI 1.55 to 4.18; 477 participants, three studies; low quality evidence). Two trials (172 participants) compared any antibiotic treatment for sexual partners with no intervention. When we compared it with no intervention, the effects of antibiotic treatment on recurrence rate after the fourth week (RR 1.71, 95% CI 0.65 to 4.55; 51 participants, one study), clinical improvement between the first and fourth week (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.25; 152 participants, two studies) and symptomatic improvement after the fourth week (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.11; 70 participants, one study) were imprecise and there were no differences between groups. We downgraded the quality of the evidence to low or very low.

evoclin reviews 2015-08-13

Mild to moderately severe Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS was treated in a clinical trial with a combination regimen of primaquine and clindamycin, and the efficacy of this regimen was compared with that of the conventional treatment regimen of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The results revealed that primaquine/clindamycin appears to be an equally effective alternative to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The spectrum of side-effects was Cephalexin 1000 Mg similar for the two regimens; side-effects occurred with equal frequency but appeared to be less severe in patients given primaquine/clindamycin. Because therapy with primaquine and clindamycin was limited to patients with mild to moderate Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, studies with this regimen in more severe cases are warranted.

evoclin foam dosage 2016-04-21

Primary prevention of acute rheumatic fever is accomplished by proper identification and adequate antibiotic treatment of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) tonsillopharyngitis. Diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis is best accomplished by combining clinical judgment with diagnostic test results, the criterion standard of which is the Sumamed Tablet I throat culture. Penicillin (either oral penicillin V or injectable benzathine penicillin) is the treatment of choice, because it is cost-effective, has a narrow spectrum of activity, and has long-standing proven efficacy, and GAS resistant to penicillin have not been documented. For penicillin-allergic individuals, acceptable alternatives include a narrow-spectrum oral cephalosporin, oral clindamycin, or various oral macrolides or azalides. The individual who has had an attack of rheumatic fever is at very high risk of developing recurrences after subsequent GAS pharyngitis and needs continuous antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent such recurrences (secondary prevention). The recommended duration of prophylaxis depends on the number of previous attacks, the time elapsed since the last attack, the risk of exposure to GAS infections, the age of the patient, and the presence or absence of cardiac involvement. Penicillin is again the agent of choice for secondary prophylaxis, but sulfadiazine or a macrolide or azalide are acceptable alternatives in penicillin-allergic individuals. This report updates the 1995 statement by the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee. It includes new recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of GAS pharyngitis, as well as for the secondary prevention of rheumatic fever, and classifies the strength of the recommendations and level of evidence supporting them.

cost of evoclin 2016-04-17

This article reviews anti-inflammatory properties of clindamycin, which is often used topically Biaxin Kidney Infection for the management of acne vulgaris, usually in combination with other agents. The efficacy of clindamycin in acne treatment has been shown to be sustained for more than 3 decades. It is likely that anti-inflammatory effects play an important role in the therapeutic activity of topical clindamycin.

evoclin gel 2015-09-15

We retrospectively studied 306 pediatric methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected in 2000/2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007 for possible vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) change over time using Etest, agar dilution, and broth microdilution (MicroScan) methods. Vancomycin MICs did not increase. Inducible clindamycin resistance declined significantly (53%-0%, P < 0.001). Considerably different proportions Levomax 500 Mg of isolates with vancomycin MIC = 2 microg/mL were identified by different laboratory methodologies, suggesting the need for caution in their interpretation and in comparing published data. During this period the proportion of USA300 strains increased dramatically.

reviews on evoclin 2016-01-26

Clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel provides statistically significant greater efficacy than vehicle Alfoxil 20 Mg in treating acne in adult female patients and has a favorable safety and tolerability profile.

evoclin antibiotic 2017-04-14

Singleton pregnant women with PPROM (<34 weeks) were prospectively enrolled between April 2009 and January 2011. The diagnosis of PPROM was made with vaginal pooling, leakage, nitrazine, and Amnisure tests. The women were managed expectantly with bed rest, corticosteroids, and a triple antibiotic combination including ceftriaxone, clindamycin, and clarithromycin. Amniocentesis was offered, and culture for aerobe/ Chloramphenicol Antibiotic Classification anaerobe and mycoplasma was performed. After delivery, blood was drawn from the mother's antecubital and umbilical cord veins. Clarithromycin concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The percentage and correlation between cord and maternal serum clarithromycin concentrations were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the factors related to the cord and maternal serum clarithromycin concentration percentage.

evoclin generic name 2016-12-28

It is hypothesized that the depletion of microbial members responsible for converting primary bile acids into secondary bile acids reduces resistance to Clostridium difficile colonization. To date, inhibition of C. difficile growth by secondary bile acids has only been shown in vitro. Using targeted bile acid metabolomics, we sought to define the physiologically relevant concentrations of primary and secondary bile acids present in the murine small and large intestinal tracts and how these impact C. difficile dynamics. We treated mice with a variety of antibiotics to create distinct microbial and metabolic (bile acid) environments and directly tested their ability to support or inhibit C. difficile spore germination and outgrowth ex vivo. Susceptibility to C. difficile in the large intestine was observed only after specific broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment (cefoperazone, clindamycin, and vancomycin) and was accompanied by a significant loss of secondary bile acids (deoxycholate, lithocholate, ursodeoxycholate, hyodeoxycholate, and ω-muricholate). These changes were correlated to the loss of specific microbiota community members, the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families. Additionally, physiological concentrations of secondary bile acids present during C. difficile resistance were able to inhibit spore germination and outgrowth in vitro. Interestingly, we observed that C. difficile spore germination Injection Zocef 750 Mg and outgrowth were supported constantly in murine small intestinal content regardless of antibiotic perturbation, suggesting that targeting growth of C. difficile will prove most important for future therapeutics and that antibiotic-related changes are organ specific. Understanding how the gut microbiota regulates bile acids throughout the intestine will aid the development of future therapies for C. difficile infection and other metabolically relevant disorders such as obesity and diabetes. IMPORTANCE Antibiotics alter the gastrointestinal microbiota, allowing for Clostridium difficile infection, which is a significant public health problem. Changes in the structure of the gut microbiota alter the metabolome, specifically the production of secondary bile acids. Specific bile acids are able to initiate C. difficile spore germination and also inhibit C. difficile growth in vitro, although no study to date has defined physiologically relevant bile acids in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we define the bile acids C. difficile spores encounter in the small and large intestines before and after various antibiotic treatments. Antibiotics that alter the gut microbiota and deplete secondary bile acid production allow C. difficile colonization, representing a mechanism of colonization resistance. Multiple secondary bile acids in the large intestine were able to inhibit C. difficile spore germination and growth at physiological concentrations and represent new targets to combat C. difficile in the large intestine.

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A total of 332 staphylococcal and 263 streptococcal isolates from three hospital microbiology laboratories were tested with erythromycin, clindamycin, and vernamycin B alpha to determine the prevalence of macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B resistance. Constitutive resistance was detected in 28 Staphylococcus aureus isolates (15.5%), 53 coagulase-negative staphylococci (35.1%), and 20 streptococci (7.6%). Inducible resistance was observed in 13 S. aureus isolates (7.2%), 25 coagulase-negative staphylococci (16.6%), and 2 streptococci (0.8%). Eleven coagulase-negative staphylococci (7.3%) exhibited a novel phenotype, namely inducible resistance to erythromycin and vernamycin B alpha but not clindamycin. Zithromax Dosage Pediatric Pneumonia Among the staphylococci, two variants of the inducible phenotype detected with the agar diffusion assay correlated with the presence of classical ermA or ermC genes, respectively, by dot-blot analysis. The prevalence of the staphylococcal phenotypes were different in the hospitals surveyed, and there was an apparent inverse correlation between the resistance observed and the use of erythromycin in each hospital.

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Meropenem is a new carbapenem antibiotic that is stable to human renal dehydropeptidase-I (DHP-I) and exhibits potent bactericidal activity against almost all clinically significant aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Activity is achieved through rapid entry into bacteria, resisting hydrolysis by all serine-based beta-lactamases, both of chromosomal or plasmid origin, and high affinity for vital penicillin binding proteins. The antibacterial spectrum of meropenem has been investigated extensively in a world-wide programme of studies. The results from all of these studies are consistent and identify in vitro differences between meropenem and imipenem. Both agents demonstrate high activity against Gram-positive aerobes with meropenem slightly less active than imipenem but significantly more potent than imipenem against Haemophilus influenza, all Enterobacteriaceae and 2-4 fold more active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and most other pseudomonas. The spectrum of carbapenems is superior to that of all other beta-lactams. This is achieved, in part, by stability to the chromosomal beta-lactamases which hydrolyse ceftazidime, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone and against which newer agents like cefpirome and cefepime are not fully stable. Meropenem is also stable to the new plasmid-mediated enzymes which are responsible for significant elevation of MIC's of all cephalosporins and penicillins. When tested against P. Aeruginosa which have become Azimed 500 Mg Serve resistant to imipenem therapy, these strains remained susceptible to meropenem. The activity of meropenem against anaerobes is at least as potent as metronidazole and clindamycin. These impressive in vitro data have been the basis for an extensive clinical evaluation programme in many indications including infections caused by single or multiple pathogens.