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Antimicrobial resistance has been a challenge in all countries. The aim of this study is to ascertain the risk factors that predispose patients to infections with extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)-producing gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Patients who were treated in the secondary care hospital due to infections in 2009 and their isolates were evaluated retrospectively. In total, 174 patients and their 189 isolates, which contained 36 ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria, 112 non-ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria, and 41 gram-positive bacteria were evaluated retrospectively. Hospitalisation in the previous 3 months, comorbidity, and usage of amoxicillin-clavulanate in the previous 3 months were determined to be the risk factors associated with infections by the ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria. Hospitalisation was found to be a risk factor for infection with MRSA. Hospitalisation and underlying conditions increase the colonisation with resistant bacteria and resistance rates in the patients, hospitals and communities. An infection control programme should be contemplated not only for hospitals, but also for the greater community.
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Antibiotics continue to be frequently prescribed for acute cough/LRTI in Poland, and the decision to prescribe was strongly associated with clinicians' findings of abnormalities on auscultation and diagnosis of LRTI. Delayed prescribing was infrequent. Mucolytics were commonly prescribed despite evidence of no effect.
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Bronchopulmonary actinomycosis is a rare condition that mimics pulmonary malignancy on clinical and radiologic grounds. Diagnosis relies on an accurate patient history and histopathologic examination. Although further confirmation is required, esophageal HH appears to be a potential predisposing factor.
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Progress in the understanding of susceptibility factors to drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and outcome predictability are hampered by the lack of systematic programs to detect bona fide cases.
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The efficacy of 3-day treatment with a combined clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation (Clavamox combination dry syrup for pediatric cases) and 10-day treatment with amoxicillin against pediatric pharyngolaryngitis and tonsillitis caused by Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus was compared. Among the patients included in the efficacy evaluation (54 from the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 43 from the amoxicillin group), the clinical response rate on completion of treatment was 98.1 % in the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 92.9 % in the amoxicillin group, thus supporting the equivalent efficacy of these two therapies. The Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus eradication rate at approximately 1-2 weeks after completion/discontinuation of treatment was 65.4 % in the clavulanate/amoxicillin group and 85.4 % in the amoxicillin group. Even in cases from which the pathogen continued to be isolated, relapse/recurrence of clinical symptoms was seldom seen. Urinalysis, conducted to assess the presence or absence of acute glomerulonephritis, revealed no abnormality in any patient. These results suggest that 3-day treatment with this clavulanate/amoxicillin preparation is expected to provide a valid means of treating pediatric pharyngolaryngitis and tonsillitis caused by Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus.
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A total of 1,007 clinical isolates from a tertiary care center were tested against RU 29,246, ampicillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, Augmentin, oxacillin, piperacillin, gentamicin, amikacin and vancomycin. Bacteria tested consisted of 479 strains of Enterobacteriaceae, 64 pseudomonads, 18 Xanthomonas, 42 other gram-negative bacilli, 56 enterococci and 348 isolates of staphylococci. RU 29,246 showed excellent in vitro activity inhibiting > 90% of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, Enterobacter, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia, Morganella, Salmonella, Shigella, Aeromonas hydrophila, and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus at an MIC of 0.5-1.0 mg/l. Seventy-seven percent coagulase-negative staphylococci had an MIC of 1.0-4.0 mg/l. All strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and X. maltophilia were resistant to RU 29,246. Fifty-six percent of the enterococcal isolates were inhibited by 1.0-16.0 mg/l of RU 29,246.
This study was performed at three surgical departments of Smolensk hospitals. A total of 150 consecutive patients (50 at each department) hospitalized since January 2012 were included into the retrospective observation (period I). In order to perform prospective evaluation of CPM, a total of 66 consecutive patients (randomized 1:1) hospitalized since December 2012 (period II) were followed up at each of the departments. Antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) with IV amoxicillin/clavulanate (1.2 g) was planned for all patients from period II. The study group (group 1) included patients with surgical wound closure with triclosan-coated polyglactin 910 and additionally with a skin 2-octylcyanoacrylate-based adhesive. The control group (group 2) included patients with surgical wound closure with non-triclosan-coated polyglactin 910. Each patient from the period II was assigned to an "Individual SSI Prevention Package" (IPP), which included an antibiotic, sutures, skin adhesive (only in a package for CPM) and label "AP" for patients' medical records. Patients' medical records were reviewed by one expert. Exclusion criteria were: age <14 years; transition to midline laparotomy; drainage of the abdominal cavity through the surgical wound; simultaneous interventions; secondary appendicitis; refusal to use of sutures from the IPP. In order to determine signs of SSI presence/absence within 30 days after surgery, attempts to contact with patients by phone were made. The data obtained was recorded into case report forms and then entered into the study database.
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Sixty-one children with mild asthma and allergic rhinitis participated in the study. Forty-one of these 61 children had sinusitis, and the remainder had no sinusitis. Ten matched, nonatopic, healthy children were used as a control group.