Metronidazole is the antibiotic of choice for the management of infections caused by anaerobes. Its administration requires multiple daily doses causing increased medication errors. Due to its high post-antibiotic effect and rapid concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, administration of this antibiotic in an extended dosing interval would achieve PK/PD parameters effectively.
Although ceftriaxone (R) and cefotaxime (C) are highly effective antibiotics, few studies have directly compared their prophylactic efficacy.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide, double antibiotic paste (DAP) and triple antibiotic paste (TAP) with minocycline, cefaclor and amoxicillin on the micro tensile bond strength (µTBS) of self-etch adhesive to pulp chamber dentin.
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Eradication was confirmed with 13C-urea breath test 4-8 wk after therapy.
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Metronidazole (Mtz) is a critical ingredient of modern multidrug therapies for Helicobacter pylori infection. Mtz resistance reduces the effectiveness of these combinations. Although null mutations in a rdxA gene that encodes oxygen-insensitive NAD(P)H nitroreductase was reported in Mtz-resistant H. pylori, an intact rdxA gene has also been reported in Mtz-resistant H. pylori, suggesting that additional Mtz resistance mechanisms exist in H. pylori. We explored the nature of Mtz resistance among 544 clinical H. pylori isolates to clarify the role of rdxA inactivation in Mtz resistance and to identify another gene(s) responsible for Mtz resistance in H. pylori. Mtz resistance was present in 33% (181 of 544) of the clinical isolates. There was marked heterogeneity of resistance, with Mtz MICs ranging from 8 to >/=256 microg/ml. rdxA inactivation resulted in Mtz MICs of up to 32 microg/ml for 6 Mtz-sensitive H. pylori strains and 128 microg/ml for one Mtz-sensitive strain. Single or dual (with rdxA) inactivation of genes that encode ferredoxin-like protein (designated fdxB) and NAD(P)H flavin oxidoreductase (frxA) also increased the MICs of Mtz for sensitive and resistant strains with low to moderate levels of Mtz resistance. fdxB inactivation resulted in a lower level of resistance than that from rdxA inactivation, whereas frxA inactivation resulted in MICs similar to those seen with rdxA inactivation. Further evidence for involvement of the frxA gene in Mtz resistance included the finding of a naturally inactivated frxA but an intact rdxA in an Mtz-resistant strain, complementation of Mtz sensitivity from an Mtz-sensitive strain to an Mtz-resistant strain or vice versa by use of naturally inactivated or functional frxA genes, respectively, and transformation of an Mtz-resistant Escherichia coli strain to an Mtz sensitive strain by a naturally functional frxA gene but not an inactivated frxA gene. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that null mutations in fdxB, frxA, or rdxA may be involved in Mtz resistance.
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Genomic variations of rdxA and frxA genes in eight pairs of metronidazole (MTZ)-sensitive and -resistant isolates of Helicobacter pylori were investigated. The paired strains from each single biopsy had identical lspA-glmM restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles, and the differences in MTZ susceptibility were mostly accounted for by mutations in the rdxA gene. Truncation of RdxA is associated with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 64-128 mg/L. Early truncation of FrxA was observed both in susceptible and resistant isolates of seven paired strains. Inactivation of frxA might play a significant role only in one low-level MTZ-resistant isolate where a missense mutation was found in the rdxA gene.
Medical records were reviewed for antimicrobial agents prescribed in the 10 years before diagnosis with H. pylori infection. Antimicrobial susceptibility of H. pylori isolates obtained from endoscopic gastric biopsy was determined by using agar dilution. Cure was determined by using the urea breath test 2 months after antimicrobial treatment.
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Hypoalbuminemia strongly correlated with higher recurrence rates, while PPI therapy actually reduced RCDC, representing previously underappreciated potential therapeutic targets for lowering CDC recurrence. The addition of vancomycin to metronidazole did not improve RCDC rates.
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Resistance to metronidazole in T. vaginalis has not relation to genetic variations and might be related to some physiologic pathways of organism.
To evaluate the effect of 3 or 7 days systemic administration of amoxicillin (AMX) and metronidazole (MET) or placebo as adjunct to non-surgical periodontal treatment in severe chronic periodontitis patients.