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The authors report in detail the case of a 27-year-old man who experienced sudden cardiac death 2 days after coprescription of the neuroleptic pimozide and the macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin after the documentation of a prolonged QT interval. To determine the prevalence of this interaction, the authors referred to the Spontaneous Reporting System of the Food and Drug Administration and identified one similar case in which clarithromycin was coprescribed with pimozide and sudden cardiac death occurred shortly thereafter. In addition, the search identified 39 cases of cardiac arrhythmia associated with pimozide, 11 with pimozide alone, and 6 with clarithromycin alone, 1 of which had a positive rechallenge. The mechanism of the interaction between clarithromycin and pimozide seems to involve the inhibition of the hepatic metabolism of pimozide by the macrolide. The authors demonstrated that clarithromycin is able to inhibit the metabolism of pimozide in human liver microsomal preparations (K(i) = 7.65 +/- 1.18 microM) and that pimozide, but not clarithromycin or its primary metabolite, is able to prolong the electrocardiac QT interval in a dose-dependent manner in the isolated perfused rabbit heart. The increase was 9.6 +/- 1.1% in male hearts (N = 5) and 13.4 +/- 1.2% in female hearts (N = 4) (p < 0.05).
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Helicobacter pylori is causally associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer diseases. Recent data (meta-analysis) have demonstrated that triple therapy with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and a proton pump inhibitor has an eradication rate of only 74-76% and new therapeutic protocols may be necessary. The aim of this study was to examine whether adding bovine lactoferrin (bLf) and probiotics (Pbs) to the standard triple therapy for H. pylori infection could improve the eradication rate and reduce side effects.
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The efficiency of Helicobacter pylori eradication varies geographically, as do many parameters that might affect therapeutic efficiency, including bacterial genotype. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficiency of H. pylori eradication using a 10-day proton pump inhibitor-based triple-therapy regimen (omeprazole, clarithromycin and amoxycillin) in an eastern Indian patient population, and to find out the relationship, if any, of the success or failure of the therapy to known features of bacterial genotype.
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Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were on long-term NSAIDs and were H. pylori-positive on serologic testing. Patients were randomly assigned to either eradication or placebo. Gastritis was assessed according to the updated Sydney classification for activity, chronic inflammation, gastric glandular atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and H. pylori density.
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Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were in the top five organisms for all of the age groups. The proportions of S. aureus that were methicillin resistant, enterococci that were vancomycin resistant and E. coli that produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases were 11.2%, 0.7% and 1.0% for children, 22.8%, 4.6% and 4.3% for adults, and 28.0%, 3.8% and 4.9% for the elderly, respectively. Notable age-related differences in antimicrobial resistance patterns included the following: significantly less methicillin, clindamycin, clarithromycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance in S. aureus from children; for E. coli, higher cefazolin and ciprofloxacin resistance in the elderly and less ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin resistance in isolates from children; more S. pneumoniae isolates with penicillin MICs >1 mg/L in children; and for P. aeruginosa, higher resistance rates for meropenem, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin in adults.
Eighty-two patients with H. pylori infection for whom first-line treatment with a 1-week proton pump inhibitor/amoxicillin-clarithromycin (AC) regimen had failed were randomly assigned to two groups: those having or not having the susceptibility test before re-treatment. The cure rates for these two groups were compared.
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CAL demonstrates effective bactericidal activity against H. pylori both in vitro and in vivo.
Treatment of Buruli ulcer, or Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, has shifted from surgical excision and skin grafting to antibiotic therapy usually with 8 weeks of daily rifampin (RIF) and streptomycin (STR). Although the results have been highly favorable, administration of STR requires intramuscular injection and carries the risk of side effects, such as hearing loss. Therefore, an all-oral, potentially less toxic, treatment regimen has been sought and encouraged by the World Health Organization. A combination of RIF plus clarithromycin (CLR) has been successful in patients first administered RIF+STR for 2 or 4 weeks. Based on evidence of efficacy of clofazimine (CFZ) in humans and mice with tuberculosis, we hypothesized that the combination of RIF+CFZ would be effective against M. ulcerans in the mouse footpad model of M. ulcerans disease because CFZ has similar MIC against M. tuberculosis and M. ulcerans. For comparison, mice were also treated with the gold standard of RIF+STR, the proposed RIF+CLR alternative regimen, or CFZ alone. Treatment was initiated after development of footpad swelling, when the bacterial burden was 4.64±0.14log10 CFU. At week 2 of treatment, the CFU counts had increased in untreated mice, remained essentially unchanged in mice treated with CFZ alone, decreased modestly with either RIF+CLR or RIF+CFZ, and decreased substantially with RIF+STR. At week 4, on the basis of footpad CFU counts, the combination regimens were ranked as follows: RIF+STR>RIF+CLR>RIF+CFZ. At weeks 6 and 8, none of the mice treated with these regimens had detectable CFU. Footpad swelling declined comparably with all of the combination regimens, as did the levels of detectable mycolactone A/B. In mice treated for only 6 weeks and followed up for 24 weeks, there were no relapses in RIF+STR treated mice, one (5%) relapse in RIF+CFZ-treated mice, but >50% in RIF+CLR treated mice. On the basis of these results, RIF+CFZ has potential as a continuation phase regimen for treatment of M. ulcerans disease.
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Potentially serious adverse drug interactions can occur between antimicrobial agents used in dental practice and other drugs patients are taking for a variety of medical conditions.
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Traditionally, patients presenting with uncomplicated dyspepsia have been managed using empiric antisecretory therapy, followed by endoscopy in the event of persistent symptoms or complication. Since Helicobacter pylori is now accepted as an important and potentially reversible cause of ulcer disease, it is important to reevaluate the management of dyspepsia. The goal of this study is to evaluate seven outpatient strategies for the management of dyspeptic patients using a cost-utility analysis.