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The location of plaque-associated gingivitis at the gingival portion of the tooth plays an essential role in its genesis. However, at times local and other host response modifying factors also have an influence. The pathogeny of periodontitis is more complex. The microorganisms that comprise subgingival plaque are capable of acting directly on periodontal tissues or of modifying the host response, whereas the participation of the plaque per se (normal, decreased, or increased) is as decisive as the action of the bacteria themselves in the emergence of the disease. Different types of periodontitis are associated with specific microorganisms. The most periodontopathogenic are A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and T. forsythensis. Periodontitis as a whole, represent the source of complications such as root caries, endoperiodontal processes and periodontal abscesses. They are associated with various illnesses such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and respiratory infections, amongst others, as well as pathological oral halitosis. The different modalities of PCR are particularly important in the microbiological diagnosis of periodontitis, although on the negative side of things, it must be pointed out that in vitro sensitivity studies cannot be performed using this technique. First line antibiotic treatment of periodontitis includes amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, metronidazole (associated or not with amoxicillin) and clindamycin.
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Acute Otitis Media (AOM) is the most frequent respiratory tract infection of infancy and childhood that is treated with antimicrobial agents. The most common causative pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae and Moxarella catarrhalis, and therefore antibacterial management should target against these isolates. Cefaclor, a congener of cephalexin monohydrate, is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic. It is an orally active cephalosporin which has demonstrated activity against a wide range of organisms in vitro. Present study is designed as a multicentric prospective trial to study and compare the efficacy and safety of cefaclor versus amoxicillin + clav in children with acute otitis media. One hundred and sixty seven patients were evaluated for efficacy endpoints in the cefaclor arm comprised of 104 males and 63 females with a mean age of 5.74+/-2.80 years and 185 patients in the amoxy-clav group comprised of 118 males and 67 females with a mean age of 4.93+/-2.92 years. Both cefaclor and amoxy-clav caused a significant improvement in all the signs and symptoms after a 10-day treatment period. However, between-the-group comparisons showed that the reduction in most of the symptoms was significantly more in cefaclor arm as compared to amoxicillin-clav arm. The clinical success (clinical cure + improvement) at the end of therapy was significantly more in cefaclor arm: 98% with cefaclor versus 85% with amoxicillin + clav, p<0.05 Table 3. Failure cases were prescribed other antibiotics according to the culture sensitivity reports, as rescue medication. Bacterial eradication rates were largely consistent with clinical responses. Bacteriological eradication was seen in 95% of patients in cefaclor group and 78% of patients in amoxicillin + clav group. In conclusion, cefaclor is a well tolerated and effective antibacterial option for acute otitis media in children and it is superior to the combination of amoxicillin + clav in efficacy and tolerability in acute AOM. Moreover, its expanded spectrum of activity, ability to achieve adequate concentrations in tissues, suitability for twice-daily dosing, and proven tolerability suggest that it is a good alternative to agents traditionally used in acute otitis media.
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This small study did not provide evidence of a difference between 14 days of amoxycillin/clavulanate and 3 days of azithromycin. Larger studies will be needed to determine which, if any, antibiotic regimen should be used in treating subacute childhood rhinosinusitis.
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This multicenter, randomized, single-blind study compared the efficacy and safety of a new, twice-daily formulation of amoxycillin/clavulanate (Augmenting) with the standard three-times-daily formulation. Children with a clinical diagnosis of acute otitis media, aged between 2 months and 12 years, received either amoxycillin/clavulanate 45/6.4 mg/kg/day twice-daily (b.d.) (range 38.3/5.5-76.2/10.9 mg/kg/day) or amoxycillin/clavulanate 40/10 mg/kg/day three-times-daily (t.d.s.) (range 25/6.25-56/14 mg/kg/day) for 7 or 10 days. Patients were evaluated during therapy (Days 3-5), at the end of therapy (Days 7-12) and at follow-up (Days 38-42). At the end of therapy, for the intent-to-treat and per-protocol populations, respectively, clinical success (cure) was achieved by approximately 94% of patients in both treatment groups. A successful bacteriological response at the end of therapy (Visit 3) was documented in 7/9 patients (77.8%) in the twice-daily group and in 11/13 patients (84.6%) in the three-times-daily group. At follow-up (Visit 4), 93.3% of patients in the twice-daily group and 87.9% in the three-times-daily group continued to have a clinically successful response. Both treatment regimens were well tolerated, with most adverse events being of a mild-moderate and transient nature. The most common treatment-related adverse event was diarrhea, occurring in 7.2% of patients in the twice-daily group and in 10.7% of the three-times-daily group. In total, 173 patients (82.8%) in the twice-daily group and 151 patients (73.3%) in the three-times-daily group were compliant with medication. In conclusion, this study confirms that b.d. amoxycillin/clavulanate is an effective treatment for pediatric acute otitis media and demonstrates that the b.d. and t.d.s. formulations of amoxycillin/clavulanate produce equivalent efficacy. Furthermore, there was a trend towards a higher level of compliance and a lower incidence of drug-related adverse events in the twice-daily compared with the three-times-daily treatment group.
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We report a case of a 45-year-old man hospitalized for seizures associated with fever and left hemiparesis. The white cell count and C-reactive protein were elevated. HIV serology was negative. Blood cultures remained sterile. The CT scan revealed hyperdense nodular lesions in the occipital area, with annular contrast uptake and peripheral edema causing a mass effect, suggestive of brain metastasis. The pathology examination of a surgical specimen disclosed cerebral actinomycosis. A dental origin of the infection was suspected. Hemiparesis remained after a 12-month antibiotic regimen associated with dental care and short-term corticosteroid therapy.
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Whitlow is an infection of a finger or around the fingernails, generally caused by bacterium. However, in rare cases, it may also be caused by the herpes simplex virus. As herpetic whitlow is not seen often, it may go under-recognised or be mistaken for a different kind of infection of the finger. Delayed recognition and/or treatment puts patients at risk of complications ranging from superinfection to herpetic encephalitis.
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Septic arthritis in the elderly carries a high mortality. Underlying risk factors, such as diabetes, malignancy, chronic renal failure, rheumatoid arthritis, hepatobiliary disease and AIDS, should be assessed. Rare causative organisms are occasionally encountered. Here, we describe a case of an 80-year-old diabetic patient with liver cirrhosis who developed Klebsiella pneumoniae septic arthritis, which is a rare cause of joint infection. We postulate that this case supports the notion that the patient's knee effusion seeded during a primary K pneumoniae bacteraemia of intestinal origin and related to liver cirrhosis.
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Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a parasitosis frequently seen in persons who have travelled to tropical or subtropical regions and in those who have worked in contact with soil. The disease frequently develops due to Ancylostoma braziliensis and Ancylostoma caninum species. After penetrating the skin and entering the body, the hookworm larva proceeds to bore tunnels through the epidermis, creating pruritic, erythematous, serpiginous lesions. Secondary bacterial infections of the lesions can often be seen, especially on the legs and buttocks. In this article we presented three atypical local cases which have not been declared previously in our country. The first case, a 54-year-old male who was admitted to hospital in August with complaints of an obverse body rash and itching lasting for a week. Eruptions were observed over a small area on the right side of the abdomen, consisting of itchy, raised, erythematous, curvilinear string-like lesions. Moreover, no eosinophilia was detected in the patient, whose culture showed a growth of Streptococcus pyogenes. The patient was clinically diagnosed with CLM accompanied by secondary bacterial infection and treated for three days with 1 g of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, mupirocin cream and albendazole 400 mg/d. Under this regime, the lesions were seen to decline. The second case, a 38-year-old male was also admitted in August, complaining of itching and redness on his body. The patient, whose blood count values were normal, exhibited itchy, raised, serpiginous string-like lesions located on the left side of his body. The patient, whose bacterial culture was negative, was clinically diagnosed as CLM and treated for three days with albendazole 400 mg/d and the lesions were seen to improve. The third case, a 23-year old male was admitted in September complaining of itching and redness on his neck. An itchy, crescent-shaped erythematous lesion was detected on his neck; bacteriological cultures and blood count were normal. The common feature for all three cases was the story of working in a hazelnut orchard and mowing weeds using a motorized string trimmer (weed whacker). None of them had a history of travel outside the country. Therefore CLM assumed to be occurred due to the aeration of surface earth layer with the force of motorized string trimmer and entrance of the larvae were from the open parts of the body. In conclusion, it should be keep in mind that hookworm larva-related CLM can be encountered in our country, and reporting of the patients with similar findings are necessary to determine the prevalence of this parasitosis in our country.