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Gantrisin (Bactrim)
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Gantrisin

This medication is a combination of two antibiotics: sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. It is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections (such as middle ear, urine, respiratory, and intestinal infections). It is also used to prevent and treat a certain type of pneumonia (pneumocystis-type). This medication treats only certain types of infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as flu). Unnecessary use or misuse of any antibiotic can lead to its decreased effectiveness.

Other names for this medication:
Bactiver, Bactrim, Bactron, Bactropin, Baktar, Balkatrin, Biotrim, Biseptol, Ciplin, Cotrim, Cozole, Deprim, Ditrim, Ectaprim, Eusaprim, Globaxol, Kemoprim, Lagatrim, Primadex, Purbac, Resprim, Sanprima, Sepmax, Septra, Septran, Septrin, Soltrim, Sulfa, Sulfamethoxazole, Sulfametoxazol, Sulfatrim, Sumetrolim, Supreme, Sutrim, Tagremin, Trifen, Trimoks, Trimol, Trisul, Vanadyl

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Also known as:  Bactrim.

Description

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim combination is used to treat infections such as urinary tract infections, middle ear infections (otitis media), bronchitis, traveler's diarrhea, and shigellosis (bacillary dysentery). This medicine is also used to prevent or treat Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia or Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), a very serious kind of pneumonia. This type of pneumonia occurs more commonly in patients whose immune systems are not working normally, such as cancer patients, transplant patients, and patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim combination is an antibiotic. It works by eliminating the bacteria that cause many kinds of infections. This medicine will not work for colds, flu, or other virus infections.

This medicine is available only with your doctor's prescription.

Dosage

Shake this medication well before each dose. Carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device/spoon. Do not use a household spoon because you may not get the correct dose. Take this medication by mouth, as directed by your doctor, with a full glass of water (8 ounces / 240 milliliters). If stomach upset occurs, take with food or milk. Drink plenty of fluids while taking this medication to lower the unlikely risk of kidney stones forming, unless your doctor advises you otherwise. Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.

For the best effect, take this antibiotic at evenly spaced times. To help you remember, take this medication at the same time(s) every day.

Continue to take this medication until the full prescribed amount is finished, even if symptoms disappear after a few days. Stopping it too early may allow bacteria to continue to grow, which may result in a relapse of the infection.

Overdose

Often, no treatment is needed for an antibiotic overdose. Usually, you'll need to watch for stomach upset and possibly diarrhea. In those cases, you should give extra fluids.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 to 25 degrees C (68 to 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Gantrisin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Gantrisin is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to trimethoprim or sulfonamides, in patients with a history of drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia with use of trimethoprim and/or sulfonamides, and in patients with documented megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency.

Gantrisin is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age. Gantrisin is also contraindicated in patients with marked hepatic damage or with severe renal insufficiency when renal function status cannot be monitored.

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These findings strongly support identifying improved methods of PCP prophylaxis once T-helper cell counts decrease to less than 0.075 x 10(9)/L or 0.100 x 10(9)/L. Given this severe degree of immunosuppression, an inherently more effective regimen against P carinii is required.

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Nineteen patients finished the study. The infection rate decreased from 100% at the inclusion date to 26% in the first month and then it became stable about 50%. Irritative symptoms during micturition decreased from 46% at the inclusion date to a rate lower than 10% in the 4 controls running.

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The diagnosis of a WAS-related disorder is established in a male proband with both congenital thrombocytopenia (<70,000 platelets/mm(3)) and small platelets, in addition to at least one of the following features: eczema, recurrent bacterial or viral infections, autoimmune disease(s), malignancy, reduced WASP expression in a fresh blood sample, abnormal antibody response to polysaccharide antigens and/or low isohemagglutinins, or positive maternal family history of a WAS-related disorder. Identification of a hemizygous WAS pathogenic variant on molecular genetic testing is necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

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We conducted 2 randomized, open-label, noninferiority trials in Benin. In the CTX-mandatory trial, HIV-infected women with CD4 counts of <350 per cubic millimeter received CTX either alone or with MQ-IPTp (N = 292). In the CTX-not-mandatory trial (CD4 count >350/mm), CTX was compared with MQ-IPTp (N = 140). In both the trials, the primary end point was microscopic placental parasitemia.

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Our model suggested that a cost-effective approach would be to treat gonorrhoea with a single-dose antibiotic selected from locally available products that cost no more than US$ 1.5.

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To determine the prevalence of peripheral haematological abnormalities in children receiving cotrimoxazole prophylaxis.

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The clinical importance of the genus Enterococcus is directly related to its antibiotic resistance, which contributes to the risk of colonization and infection. The species of the greatest clinical importance are Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Although the resistance characteristics of these two species differ in important ways, they can generally be categorized as intrinsic resistance, acquired resistance, and tolerance. Relative to the streptococci, enterococci are intrinsically resistant to many commonly used antimicrobial agents. All enterococci exhibit decreased susceptibility to penicillin and ampicillin, as well as high-level resistance to most cephalosporins and all semi-synthetic penicillins, as the result of expression of low-affinity penicillin-binding proteins. For many strains, their level of resistance to ampicillin does not preclude the clinical use of this agent. In fact, ampicillin remains the treatment of choice for enterococcal infections that lack other mechanisms for high-level resistance. Enterococci are also intrinsically resistant to clindamycin, which is mediated by the product of the lsa gene, although the mechanism remains poorly defined. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole appears to be active against enterococci when tested in vitro on folate-deficient media, but fails in animal models, presumably because enterococci can absorb folate from the environment (Zervos & Schaberg, 1985). Enterococci also have a native resistance to clinically achievable concentrations of aminoglycosides, which precludes their use as single agents. Although E. faecalis is naturally resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin, this combination is highly active against E. faecium strains that lack specific resistance determinants. Enterococci are tolerant to the (normally) bactericidal activity of cell-wall active agents, such as β–lactam antibiotics and vancomycin. Tolerance implies that the bacteria can be inhibited by clinically achievable concentrations of the antibiotic, but will only be killed by concentrations far in excess of the inhibitory concentration. Enterococcal tolerance can be overcome by combining cell-wall active agents with an aminoglycoside. The mechanism by which β–lactam-aminoglycoside combinations yield synergistic bactericidal activity remains a mystery, but in vitro data indicate that a higher concentration of aminoglycoside enters cells that are also treated with agents that inhibit cell wall synthesis, which suggests that the cell wall active agents promote uptake of the aminoglycoside (Mohr, Friedrich, Yankelev, & Lamp, 2009). Tolerance is normally detected in vitro by plotting survival in kill curves, and can be observed for a number of antibiotic-bacteria combinations. In vitro tolerance has an important impact on therapy for treating enterococcal infections. The treatment of endocarditis requires bactericidal therapy, due to the inaccessibility of the bacteria within the cardiac vegetations to the mammalian immune system. Recognition of synergism between penicillin-streptomycin led to an improvement in cure rates for enterococcal endocarditis, from approximately 40% to greater than 80% (Jensen, Frimodt-Møller, & Aarestrup, 1999; Rice & Carias, 1998). Despite considerable effort, investigators have yet to find other combinations of antibiotics that are synergistically bactericidal against enterococci. In addition to intrinsic resistance and tolerance, enterococci have been extraordinarily successful at rapidly acquiring resistance to virtually any antimicrobial agent put into clinical use. Introduction of chloramphenicol, erythromycin and tetracyclines was quickly followed by the emergence of resistance, in some cases reaching a prevalence that precluded their empirical use. While the occurrence of ampicillin resistance in E. faecalis has been quite rare, there is now widespread, high-level resistance to ampicillin among clinical E. faecium isolates. High-level aminoglycoside resistance, which negates the synergism between cell-wall active agents and aminoglycosides, has been recognized for several decades. Vancomycin resistance is widely prevalent in E. faecium, although it remains relatively rare in E. faecalis. In response to the growing problem of vancomycin resistance in enterococci, the pharmaceutical industry has developed a number of newer agents that have activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). However, none of these newly licensed agents (quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline) has been entirely free of resistance. Thus, the widespread resistance of enterococci has had a substantial impact on our use of both empirical and definitive antibiotics for the treatment of enterococcal infections, a situation that is likely to persist for the foreseeable future.

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The high rate of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, along with the resistance to antibiotics widely used in the community, suggests the importance of an epidemiological surveillance as well as the application of new vaccine strategies.

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To compare the efficacy of the classic treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis (pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and prednisolone) with a regimen consisting of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) plus prednisolone.

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In all 272 SP isolates and 73 HI isolates were cultured. SP resistance rates to penicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), tetracycline and chloramphenicol were 8.8, 6.3, 42.3 and 9.2%, respectively. All penicillin-resistant SP isolates were intermediately resistant. HI resistance rates to ampicillin, TMP-SMX and chloramphenicol were 1.4, 12.3 and 0%, respectively. The most common SP serotypes/groups were 19, 14, 6 and 1; 49% of HI isolates were type b. History of antimicrobial use in the previous 7 days was the only factor associated with carriage of a resistant isolate. Resistance rates were similar among ill children regardless of whether they had pneumonia.

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The bacterial flora in the urine samples of 15 nursing home patients with long-term, indwelling catheters were examined monthly for one year. There was a rapidly changing polymicrobial flora averaging 2.0 changes per month in species with colony counts greater than 100,000/mL, and 3.2 changes per month when changes in species, biogram, and quantity of bacteria were considered. The flora changed significantly more frequently, and cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia stuartii, and Citrobacter diversus were significantly more frequent in those receiving sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim prophylaxis than in those who did not. There was no difference in incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) between those patients who received sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim prophylaxis and those who did not. Ampicillin or gentamicin was effective against 99% of species cultured that are of established UTI pathogenicity. Owing to the rapidity of bacterial flora changes, routine monthly cultures are of little predictive value in patients with indwelling catheters. This study does not support the efficacy of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim prophylaxis in such patients.

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is gantrisin an antibiotic 2015-03-21

The efficacy of ofloxacin in preventing infection in neutropenic patients following cytotoxic chemotherapy was evaluated and was compared with that of co-trimoxazole. A total of 102 patients with hematological malignancies were randomly selected to receive either co-trimoxazole or ofloxacin. All patients were monitored for compliance, occurrence of infection, and drug-related side effects. A surveillance culture of a rectal swab was performed regularly. A total of 25 of the 52 patients (48%) who received co-trimoxazole and 11 of the 50 patients (22%) who received ofloxacin developed fever during the study period (P less than 0.025). Gram-negative bacteremia occurred in nine patients in the co-trimoxazole group (17%) but in only one patient (2%) in the ofloxacin group (P less than 0.05). No patient in either group had documented gram-positive bacterial or Pneumocystis carinii infection. Poor performance status was the only identifiable factor associated Amoclan Drug with an increased incidence of bacteremia. The surveillance study showed that significantly fewer bacterial strains were resistant to ofloxacin than to co-trimoxazole and that acquisition of resistance to co-trimoxazole was more commonly observed than was acquisition of resistance to ofloxacin. Significantly more patients had skin rashes following co-trimoxazole than ofloxacin treatment (P less than 0.05). Ofloxacin was superior to co-trimoxazole in preventing infection in this population of neutropenic patients.

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A cross Supreme Hats Online Uk -sectional study.

gantrisin suspension 2017-01-12

Q fever during pregnancy results in severe obstetric complications, including oligoamnios. Because of its ability to protect against placental infection, intrauterine fetal death, and maternal chronic Q fever, long-term cotrimoxazole treatment should be used to treat pregnant women with Omnicef Dosing Peds Q fever.

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Longterm therapy of chronic bacterial bronchitis assumes two forms: (a) therapy of acute exacerbations, and (b) continuous longterm prophylaxis, chiefly during the 4-7 winter months. Longterm prophylaxis should be confined exclusively to patients with two or more severe annual exacerbations. The commonest pathogens, Haemophilus influenzae and pneumococci, Bactrim Pediatric Suspension are usually sensitive to ampicillin and amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole (Bactrim or Eusaprim) and tetracyclines.

gantrisin dosage adults 2015-10-31

A total of 1073 subjects were randomized to either Entizol 8 Tablet Najednou control (540) or TSM (533). 486 patients in the TSM group and 499 in the control group were followed-up with after 4 weeks. Thirty-seven (3.8%) patients were afflicted by SSI at discharge from hospital and 69 (7.0%) at follow-up four weeks after surgery. After four weeks, the rate of incisional SSI was 7.0% in the TSM group and 3.6% in the control group (p=0.022). For organ/space SSI and the other complications monitored in the study, no differences were observed between the groups.

gantrisin tablets 2017-04-28

Irinotecan (CPT-11) is a water-soluble analogue of camptothecin showing Macrobid 250 Mg activity in colon cancer. Recently, we identified a major metabolite of CPT-11 in patients' plasma, 7-ethyl-10-[4-N-(5-aminopentanoic acid)-1-piperidino] carbonyloxycamptothecin (APC), which is produced by the oxidation of the distal piperidine ring (P. Rivory et al, Cancer Res., 56: 3689-3694, 1996). As with all active camptothecin derivatives, CPT-11 is subject to spontaneous interconversion between a lactone and a carboxylate form in aqueous media. The kinetics of biotransformation of the two forms of CPT-11 into APC was studied using pooled human liver microsomes. The formation of APC was characterized by the following parameters: Km = 18.4 +/- 1.4 and 39.7 +/- 11.6 microM; and Vmax = 26.0 +/- 0.6 and 13.4 +/- 1.7 pmol/min/mg protein for the lactone and carboxylate forms of CPT-11, respectively. This reaction was found to be catalyzed principally by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A because of three key results: (a) the CYP 3A-selective inhibitors ketoconazole (1 microM) and troleandomycin (100 microM) inhibited APC formation by 98 and 100%, respectively, mostly in a competitive way; (b) using microsomes from transfected lymphoblastoid cells expressing specific CYPs, we found that only those from CYP 3A4 cDNA-transfected cells transformed CPT-11 into APC; and (c) using 15 individual preparations of human liver microsomes, we observed highly significant correlations between the activity of CPT-11 metabolism into APC and both immunoreactivity with anti-CYP 3A antibodies and testosterone 6beta hydroxylation, an activity specifically mediated by CYP 3A. The effect on this metabolism of 11 drugs used at 100 microM was studied with CPT-11 lactone at 25 microM. Amikacin, Bactrim, ciprofloxacin, rocephine, 5-fluorouracil, metoclopramide, morphine, and paracetamol had no effect, but ondansetron, loperamide, and racecadotril inhibited this pathway by 25, 50, and 50%, respectively. These concentrations exceed those expected in vivo. APC formation in patients may thus be influenced by coadministered ketoconazole therapy and may decline after administration of CPT-11 because of the lactonolysis of the latter.

azo gantrisin medication 2016-06-17

Acute cholecystitis is initially a chemical inflammation, but regularly complicated Metronidazole Y El Alcohol by bacterial invasion from the gut. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Streptococcus faecalis dominate among aerobic bacteria, whereas Bacteroides fragilis and clostridia are commonly encountered anaerobes. Mixed infections are prevalent. Bactibilia occurs in at least 60% of the early stage of acute cholecystitis and is particularly prevalent in the elderly. Also, bactibilia is very common in recurrent cholecystitis. A close connection is found between the presence of bactibilia and infectious complications. Although antimicrobial treatment does not sterilize the bile of an obstructed gall bladder, most authors favour such treatment in cases of febrile cholecystitis, particularly in the elderly, in order to prevent septic complications. Various regimens of preoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis have significantly reduced the infectious complications, in spite of persistent bactibilia. Prophylactic courses should not exceed one or two days, one single preoperative dose is probably adequate. The choice of antimicrobial drugs for prophylaxis varies with local experience and patterns of bacterial resistance. A combination of broad spectred betalactam antibiotics and nitroimidazole would generally seem to provide an appropriate and atoxic coverage.

azo gantrisin tablets 2015-09-08

The inability of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) to eradicate Haemophilus influenzae nasopharyngeal carriage in all asymptomatic patients in closed populations was examined in vitro. A broth medium was adapted for susceptibility testing of H. influenzae which permitted us to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). The minimum inhibitory concentrations were all low, but the MBCs were bimodally distributed. Trimethoprim alone or the combination SXT either was bactericidal for H. influenzae isolates at low concentrations ( Ricilina 400 Mg i.e., low MBCs) similar to minimum inhibitory concentrations or showed no bactericidal activity (i.e., high MBCs). If trimethoprim was bactericidal when tested alone against H. influenzae, then the combination SXT was also bactericidal. H. influenzae carriage could not be eradicated from asymptomatic patients with SXT therapy when that combination was not bactericidal for these isolates in vitro. H. influenzae carriage was eradicated from patients when the activity of SXT was bactericidal in vitro. H. influenzae strains that are not killed by trimethoprim or SXT seem to occur at random.

azo gantrisin tabs 2015-12-25

We report a unique case of acute bacterial prostatitis probably caused by Listeria monocytogenes in an Flagenase De 125 Mg HIV-infected patient. For the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported of a patient with this association. Our case illustrates the protean clinical presentations that L. monocytogenes infections may adopt, particularly in immunocompromised patients.

gantrisin syrup 2016-07-19

Measures aimed at preventing complications and slowing progression of type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) can potentially reduce morbidity. Although little is known about the use of such measures, such data are critical for program planning. This study was performed to quantify the frequency and patterns of use for such interventions. We enrolled 1,171 persons infected with HIV, but without an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining diagnosis, in a multicenter prospective study of the pulmonary complications of HIV infection. Participants were homosexual/bisexual men, injection drug users (IDUs), or female sexual contacts of HIV-infected men. Centers were university-based and geographically dispersed across the United States. Standardized questionnaires were administered on entry and at three-month or six-month intervals; we correlated use of general and HIV-related preventive measures before entry and during the first three years in study with clinical/epidemiologic characteristics. Overall use of preventive interventions was low; only one third of study entrants had used such measures. Use was greatest among those with advanced HIV infection, but only half used preventive measures on entry; IDUs were less likely than homosexuals to use these services. Although use of interventions such as anti-Pneumocystis and antiretroviral agents increased during study participation, general measures such as pneumococcal vaccine and tuberculosis prophylaxis were used by less than 30% of those eligible for use. Among IDUs, cumulative use of these measures remained below 20% during the first three years of this study. We conclude that HIV-infected persons underuse preventive interventions, particularly general measures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)