These findings strongly support identifying improved methods of PCP prophylaxis once T-helper cell counts decrease to less than 0.075 x 10(9)/L or 0.100 x 10(9)/L. Given this severe degree of immunosuppression, an inherently more effective regimen against P carinii is required.
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Nineteen patients finished the study. The infection rate decreased from 100% at the inclusion date to 26% in the first month and then it became stable about 50%. Irritative symptoms during micturition decreased from 46% at the inclusion date to a rate lower than 10% in the 4 controls running.
The diagnosis of a WAS-related disorder is established in a male proband with both congenital thrombocytopenia (<70,000 platelets/mm(3)) and small platelets, in addition to at least one of the following features: eczema, recurrent bacterial or viral infections, autoimmune disease(s), malignancy, reduced WASP expression in a fresh blood sample, abnormal antibody response to polysaccharide antigens and/or low isohemagglutinins, or positive maternal family history of a WAS-related disorder. Identification of a hemizygous WAS pathogenic variant on molecular genetic testing is necessary to confirm the diagnosis.
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We conducted 2 randomized, open-label, noninferiority trials in Benin. In the CTX-mandatory trial, HIV-infected women with CD4 counts of <350 per cubic millimeter received CTX either alone or with MQ-IPTp (N = 292). In the CTX-not-mandatory trial (CD4 count >350/mm), CTX was compared with MQ-IPTp (N = 140). In both the trials, the primary end point was microscopic placental parasitemia.
Our model suggested that a cost-effective approach would be to treat gonorrhoea with a single-dose antibiotic selected from locally available products that cost no more than US$ 1.5.
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To determine the prevalence of peripheral haematological abnormalities in children receiving cotrimoxazole prophylaxis.
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The clinical importance of the genus Enterococcus is directly related to its antibiotic resistance, which contributes to the risk of colonization and infection. The species of the greatest clinical importance are Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Although the resistance characteristics of these two species differ in important ways, they can generally be categorized as intrinsic resistance, acquired resistance, and tolerance. Relative to the streptococci, enterococci are intrinsically resistant to many commonly used antimicrobial agents. All enterococci exhibit decreased susceptibility to penicillin and ampicillin, as well as high-level resistance to most cephalosporins and all semi-synthetic penicillins, as the result of expression of low-affinity penicillin-binding proteins. For many strains, their level of resistance to ampicillin does not preclude the clinical use of this agent. In fact, ampicillin remains the treatment of choice for enterococcal infections that lack other mechanisms for high-level resistance. Enterococci are also intrinsically resistant to clindamycin, which is mediated by the product of the lsa gene, although the mechanism remains poorly defined. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole appears to be active against enterococci when tested in vitro on folate-deficient media, but fails in animal models, presumably because enterococci can absorb folate from the environment (Zervos & Schaberg, 1985). Enterococci also have a native resistance to clinically achievable concentrations of aminoglycosides, which precludes their use as single agents. Although E. faecalis is naturally resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin, this combination is highly active against E. faecium strains that lack specific resistance determinants. Enterococci are tolerant to the (normally) bactericidal activity of cell-wall active agents, such as β–lactam antibiotics and vancomycin. Tolerance implies that the bacteria can be inhibited by clinically achievable concentrations of the antibiotic, but will only be killed by concentrations far in excess of the inhibitory concentration. Enterococcal tolerance can be overcome by combining cell-wall active agents with an aminoglycoside. The mechanism by which β–lactam-aminoglycoside combinations yield synergistic bactericidal activity remains a mystery, but in vitro data indicate that a higher concentration of aminoglycoside enters cells that are also treated with agents that inhibit cell wall synthesis, which suggests that the cell wall active agents promote uptake of the aminoglycoside (Mohr, Friedrich, Yankelev, & Lamp, 2009). Tolerance is normally detected in vitro by plotting survival in kill curves, and can be observed for a number of antibiotic-bacteria combinations. In vitro tolerance has an important impact on therapy for treating enterococcal infections. The treatment of endocarditis requires bactericidal therapy, due to the inaccessibility of the bacteria within the cardiac vegetations to the mammalian immune system. Recognition of synergism between penicillin-streptomycin led to an improvement in cure rates for enterococcal endocarditis, from approximately 40% to greater than 80% (Jensen, Frimodt-Møller, & Aarestrup, 1999; Rice & Carias, 1998). Despite considerable effort, investigators have yet to find other combinations of antibiotics that are synergistically bactericidal against enterococci. In addition to intrinsic resistance and tolerance, enterococci have been extraordinarily successful at rapidly acquiring resistance to virtually any antimicrobial agent put into clinical use. Introduction of chloramphenicol, erythromycin and tetracyclines was quickly followed by the emergence of resistance, in some cases reaching a prevalence that precluded their empirical use. While the occurrence of ampicillin resistance in E. faecalis has been quite rare, there is now widespread, high-level resistance to ampicillin among clinical E. faecium isolates. High-level aminoglycoside resistance, which negates the synergism between cell-wall active agents and aminoglycosides, has been recognized for several decades. Vancomycin resistance is widely prevalent in E. faecium, although it remains relatively rare in E. faecalis. In response to the growing problem of vancomycin resistance in enterococci, the pharmaceutical industry has developed a number of newer agents that have activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). However, none of these newly licensed agents (quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline) has been entirely free of resistance. Thus, the widespread resistance of enterococci has had a substantial impact on our use of both empirical and definitive antibiotics for the treatment of enterococcal infections, a situation that is likely to persist for the foreseeable future.
The high rate of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, along with the resistance to antibiotics widely used in the community, suggests the importance of an epidemiological surveillance as well as the application of new vaccine strategies.
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To compare the efficacy of the classic treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis (pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and prednisolone) with a regimen consisting of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) plus prednisolone.
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In all 272 SP isolates and 73 HI isolates were cultured. SP resistance rates to penicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), tetracycline and chloramphenicol were 8.8, 6.3, 42.3 and 9.2%, respectively. All penicillin-resistant SP isolates were intermediately resistant. HI resistance rates to ampicillin, TMP-SMX and chloramphenicol were 1.4, 12.3 and 0%, respectively. The most common SP serotypes/groups were 19, 14, 6 and 1; 49% of HI isolates were type b. History of antimicrobial use in the previous 7 days was the only factor associated with carriage of a resistant isolate. Resistance rates were similar among ill children regardless of whether they had pneumonia.
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The bacterial flora in the urine samples of 15 nursing home patients with long-term, indwelling catheters were examined monthly for one year. There was a rapidly changing polymicrobial flora averaging 2.0 changes per month in species with colony counts greater than 100,000/mL, and 3.2 changes per month when changes in species, biogram, and quantity of bacteria were considered. The flora changed significantly more frequently, and cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia stuartii, and Citrobacter diversus were significantly more frequent in those receiving sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim prophylaxis than in those who did not. There was no difference in incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) between those patients who received sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim prophylaxis and those who did not. Ampicillin or gentamicin was effective against 99% of species cultured that are of established UTI pathogenicity. Owing to the rapidity of bacterial flora changes, routine monthly cultures are of little predictive value in patients with indwelling catheters. This study does not support the efficacy of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim prophylaxis in such patients.