All CAPD patients who developed bacterial or culture-negative peritonitis beyond 28 days of a previous episode and without evidence of septicemia, associated tunnel infection, or known sensitivity to trial medications were accepted into the clinical trial.
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Our purpose was to explore the use of Transcutol P (Trans) in an ocular drug delivery system. The effect of Trans on the corneal permeability of drugs was investigated in-vitro, using isolated rabbit corneas. The ocular irritation of Trans was also tested in rabbits in-vivo. In the presence of Trans, at a concentration of 0.005-0.03%, the maximum increase in the apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) was 1.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 3.3 fold for ribavirin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin hydrochloride and enoxacin, respectively. However, the P(app) value of oxaprozin was reduced in the presence of Trans. The maximum reduction was found to be 2.8 fold at a concentration of 0.03% Trans. The results of the ocular irritation studies showed that Trans was non-irritant at the concentrations studied (0.005-0.03%), while it produced slight irritation at a concentration of 0.05%. It was also found that Trans did not cause any visible ocular damage or abnormal clinical signs involving the cornea, iris or conjunctivae at all concentrations. We concluded that Trans may have potential clinical benefits in improving the ocular drug delivery of hydrophilic compounds.
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To compare the short-term effects of preserved and unpreserved topical levofloxacin on the ocular surface of preoperative patients with age-related cataracts.
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to evaluate the effect of a 3-day course antibiotic post-urodynamic study (UDS) to prevent urinary tract infection (UTI).
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Between 2007 and 2014, consecutive patients who underwent at least 2 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies with H. pylori culture and susceptibility testing at our institution following several treatment failures were retrospectively identified. Antibiotic susceptibility was recorded and linked to demographic data.
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Levofloxacin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is rare, requiring at least two mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase. The prevalence of single QRDR mutations in these genes is unknown. Of 9,438 levofloxacin-susceptible pneumococci from the TRUST 4 surveillance study (1999-2000), 528 strains (MICs of 0.5 to 2.0 microg/ml) were selected for analysis. For comparison, 214 levofloxacin-susceptible strains (MICs of 0.5 to 1 microg/ml) isolated between 1992 and 1996 were analyzed. Oligonucleotide probe assay and DNA sequencing were used to detect QRDR mutations leading to changes at Ser79 and Asp83 in ParC, Ser81 in GyrA, and Asp435 in ParE, the most frequently found substitutions among levofloxacin-resistant strains. Among the 1992 to 1996 isolates only one strain (levofloxacin MIC, 1 microg/ml) had a mutation (Ser79 to Phe in ParC). No single mutations were found among 270 TRUST 4 strains with levofloxacin MICs of 0.5 microg/ml. Among 244 strains for which levofloxacin MICs were 1 microg/ml, 15 strains (6.1%) had a parC mutation and 3 strains (1.2%) had a parE mutation. Of 14 strains for which levofloxacin MICs were 2 microg/ml, 10 strains (71%) had a parC mutation; no parE mutations were found. No gyrA mutations were detected. It was estimated that 4.5% of the 9,438 levofloxacin-susceptible TRUST 4 isolates (MICs, < or =0.06 to 2 microg/ml) had a single parC or parE QRDR mutation. Although there has been an increase in the prevalence of single-step mutants, the increase may have been overestimated due in part to differences in geographical distribution for the two sets of isolates.
To determine the trends of conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated from patients prior to cataract surgery.
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The activity of DC-159a, a novel orally administered fluorinated quinolone, was evaluated by reference broth microdilution or agar dilution methods against 1,149 recently collected clinical isolates from five continents. Against pathogens associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CA-RTIs), the MIC(90)s were 0.12 microg/ml for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 0.015 to 0.03 microg/ml for Haemophilus influenzae, 0.03 microg/ml for Moraxella catarrhalis, and 0.12 microg/ml for beta-hemolytic streptococci. Similarly, DC-159a was potent against various types of staphylococci (MIC(90) range, 0.03 to 2 microg/ml), Enterococcus faecalis (MIC(90), 4 microg/ml), wild-type isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae (MIC(90) range, 0.06 to 2 microg/ml), wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC(90), 2 microg/ml), and Acinetobacter spp. (MIC(90), 0.12 microg/ml). Fluoroquinolone-nonsusceptible organism subsets usually had elevated DC-159a MICs, but the MICs were often two- to fourfold lower than those of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. In conclusion, DC-159a appears to possess a balanced broad spectrum of activity that exceeds the activities of the currently marketed fluoroquinolones, especially against pathogens that cause CA-RTIs.
To examine the relationship between anterior chamber (AC) sterilization and vitreous positivity rate in cases of endophthalmitis.
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Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy are highly prone to infections because of suppression of their immune system. in the present study, the activity of fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, glycopeptides and oxazolidinones was evaluated in Staphylococcus aureus strains by broth dilution method according to Clinical and laboratory Standards institute (ClSi), USA guidelines. the frequency of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (mRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (mSSA) strains was 67% and 33% respectively. The MIC(50 )and MIC(90 )of isolates were ciprofloxacin 8 and 32 microg/ml for mRSA, 8 and 16 microg/ml for mSSA, levofloxacin 8 and 16 microg/ml for mRSA and mSSA, gatifloxacin 4 and 16 microg/ml for mRSA and 4 and 8 microg/ml for mSSA. MIC(50 )and MIC(90 )of vancomycin and linzolid were 1 and 2 microg/ml, 2 and 4 microg/ml for both mRSA and mSSA strains respectively. this study shows a high prevalence of and resistance in mRSA. However, vancomycin and linezolid were highly active and could be used for treating mRSA infections.
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The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of local enterobacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Between 1 January, 1998, and 31 December, 2001, we studied the sensitivity of 2,238 Enterobacteria to 26 different antibiotic agents in northern Lebanon, in the Microbiology department and Laboratory of the Islami Hospital, Tripoli, Lebanon. We used the diffusion disk method and complied with the guidelines of the French Microbiology Society antibiogram committee. Urinary samples were the most frequent source (67.5%), followed by blood cultures (12.7%). The dominant species in blood cultures was S. typhi (44.7%). We found 194 strains that produced extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL), with the highest prevalence in Serratia spp. (44.3%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.7%), Escherichia coli (20.7%) and Klebsiella oxytoca (11.3%). The global susceptibility of these strains to aminopenicillin was 15%; it reached 30% when combined with clavulanic acid. Susceptibility of the ESBL strains to these agents was 0%. The global susceptibility (and that of the ESBL strains, when greater than 0%) to other antibiotics was as follows: ticarcillin 38.5%, piperacillin 38.5%, piperacillin-tazobactam 88% (64%), imipenem 99.4%, (100%), cefalexin 41%, cefoxitin 65% (40.3%), cefuroxime 75%, amikacin 89%, chloramphenicol 30%, gentamicin 78% (42%), tetracycline 28% (16%), minocycline 30% (18.4%), colistin 67% (75%), nitrofuran 40% (45%), cotrimoxazol 40% (13%), nalidixic acid 53% (5.6%), pefloxacin 63% (23%), ciprofloxacin 71% (39%), and levofloxacin 72% (47%).