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Clinical treatment for blaKPC-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates is challenging because the recommended antibiotic options are limited and are extraordinarily expensive. This study aimed to explore a new therapy for infection caused by KPC-producing K. pneumoniae.
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The in vitro activity of amoxycillin-clavulanic acid was compared with four comparator oral antimicrobial agents; ampicillin, azithromycin, cefuroxime and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole against 4536 recent clinical isolates covering 29 species isolated in the US and Canada between 1997 and 1999. Based upon Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), amoxycillin-clavulanic acid was the most active agent against many Gram-positive species and phenotypes including methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae including penicillin intermediate and macrolide resistant strains and was as active as ampicillin against Streptococcus agalactiae, penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae and viridans streptococci. Against Enterobacteriaceae amoxycillin-clavulanic acid in general, displayed weak activity with only Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris displaying levels of susceptibility above the 90th percentile. Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid had significant activity against many species of Gram-negative non-Enterobacteriaceae including Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis but negligible activity against Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid continues to retain excellent activity against the majority of targeted pathogens despite 20 years of clinical use.
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The purpose of this study was to compare the use of amoxicillin (1g) vs amoxicillin and clavulanate (875/125mg) after extraction of retained third molars for prevention of infectious complications.
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Augmentin, a formulation of amoxycillin trihydrate 250 mg and sodium clavulanate 125 mg per tablet (A-CS) (Augmentin; Beecham), was used in treating 29 episodes of urinary tract infection occurring in 26 patients admitted to the Spinal Unit of the H. F. Verwoerd Hospital, Pretoria. Patients who had a urinary bacterial cell count of more than 105 of the same amoxycillin-resistant organism before and after the oral administration of amoxycillin 500 mg 3 times a day for 48 hours, received 2 A-CS 375 mg tablets orally, 3 times a day at the start if a meal for 5 days. The 29 strains of amoxycillin-resistant organisms treated in this study were: Escherichia coli (11), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11), Proteus mirabilis (4), Enterobacter cloacae (2), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1). The bacteriological success rate 24 hours after therapy was 100% and 8 days after therapy 69%, dependent on patient management. In patients on free drainage and managed with condoms a bacteriological success rate of 55,5% was recorded and in patients managed by intermittent catheterization a bacteriological success rate of 75% was recorded. Side-effects were minimal; 1 patient complained of dizziness and no instances of nausea or vomiting were reported. Haematological, renal and hepatic monitoring before and after A-CS-therapy revealed no drug-related toxicity.
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Multicentre, randomised controlled, open labelled, parallel group, non-inferiority trial.
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Bacterial MIC levels remained constant among the three antibiotic treatment groups compared with baseline. Mean MIC90 values ranged from <0.02 to 0.11 microg/ml (amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium), <0.02 to 0.27 microg/ml (metronidazole), and <0.02 to 0.11 microg/ml (tetracycline). Observed changes in susceptibility were attributed to the elimination of single bacterial taxa in the subgingival environment after antibiotic therapy. There were no statistically significant differences in clinical parameters among the treatment groups. Single tetracycline MICs were 1.5- to 6-fold enhanced compared to amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium and metronidazole.
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To determine trends in ciprofloxacin resistance and co-resistance to other antibiotic classes in blood isolates of Escherichia coli, and to investigate if there is an ecological relationship to the community use of fluoroquinolones and other antibiotics.
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The activity of the new oral cephalosporin Bay v 3522 was compared to that of six other beta-lactam agents. Bay v 3522 inhibited methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis at less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml, compared to MICs of greater than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml for the other cephalosporins tested. It was more active against Streptococcus pyogenes (MIC less than or equal to 0.06 microgram/ml) than cefuroxime, cefixime, cephalexin and cefaclor. Groups B, C and G streptococci were inhibited at less than or equal to 0.12 microgram/ml, while the MI"90 for Streptococcus bovis and viridans streptococci was 0.5 and 2 micrograms/ml, respectively. The MIC90 for enterococci and Listeria monocytogenes was 8 micrograms/ml. Clostridium perfringens was inhibited by 0.12 microgram/ml, but most Bacteroides spp. were resistant. The MIC90 for beta-lactamase positive Escherichia coli (producing primarily TEM-1) was greater than 64 micrograms/ml and for beta-lactamase negative strains 16 micrograms/ml. The MIC90 for high-level beta-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was greater than 64 micrograms/ml versus 4 micrograms/ml for other isolates. The MIC90 for Moraxella catarrhalis was 2 micrograms/ml, for Haemophilus influenzae 1 micrograms/ml, and for Neisseria gonorrhoeae 4 micrograms/ml. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resistant. Bay v 3522 was destroyed by TEM-1, SHV-1, TEM-3 and P99 beta-lactamases.
The purpose of this study was to determine effect of repeated exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid on the development of resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Other agents, azithromycin, cefaclor and levofloxacin, were also tested. Twenty S. pneumoniae were passaged for 9 days in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of each antimicrobial agent and MICs determined by NCCLS macro-dilution method. There was a four-fold increase in amoxicillin/clavulanic acid MICs for 2 of 20 isolates. Three of 9 tested against cefaclor, 11 of 13 tested against azithromycin and 9 of 20 tested against levofloxacin showed > or =4-fold increase. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was the most stable of the agents tested. Cefaclor MICs were also fairly stable. Azithromycin and levofloxacin MICs were most affected.
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We used data from 152 patients of the placebo arm of a randomized trial of amoxicillin/clavulanate for exacerbations of mild to moderate COPD. Clinical response in relation to Anthonisen criteria and point-of-care serum C-reactive protein (CRP) tests (cutoff, 40 mg/L) was assessed with multivariate logistic regression analysis.
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Review of the data base revealed 207 cases of serious acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis leading to death in 4 cases (2%). Of these cases of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, only one drug was suspected in 107 cases (51.6%). The main drugs involved were: pristinamycin (18 cases), amoxicillin (+/- clavulanic acid) (16 cases), hydroxychloroquine (8 cases) and a combination of spiramycin + metronidazole (5 cases).