The recommended treatment for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in adults and children is 10 to 14 days of high doses of oral cephalosporins or amoxicillin/clavulanate.
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This study tested 212 pneumococcal isolates from 9 institutions for their susceptibilities to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxycillin, amoxycillin/clavulanate, cefaclor, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, imipenem, tetracycline, erythromycin, and clarithromycin using NCCLS-standardized microdilution. Penicillin-insusceptibility was 12.3% [5.7% intermediate (0.12-1 microgram/ml) and 6.6% high-level (> or = 2 micrograms/ml)], tetracycline-insusceptibility (> or = 4 micrograms/ml) 31.1%, and erythromycin-insusceptibility (> or = 0.5 microgram/ml) 31.1% as well. Erythromycin-insusceptible isolates showed cross-insusceptibility to clarithromycin. Penicillin-susceptible isolates were susceptible to all beta-lactams. MICs of all beta-lactams rose with those of penicillin for penicillin-insusceptible isolates. Ampicillin and penicillin were equally potent against penicillin-insusceptible isolates, imipenem, cefotaxime, and amoxycillin +/- clavulanate were more potent (generally 5, 1, and 1 doubling dilution, respectively), and cefuroxime and cefaclor less potent (generally 1 and 6 doubling dilutions, respectively). Most penicillin-insusceptible isolates were high-level resistant to cefaclor (> or = 32 micrograms/ml). Although MICs of all beta-lactams rose with those of penicillin, resistance to penicillin was not absolute in terms of cross-resistance. Most penicillin-intermediate and high-level penicillin-resistant isolates remained fully susceptible and intermediate, respectively, to amoxycillin +/- clavulanate, cefotaxime, and imipenem, but not to cefuroxime. Penicillin-susceptible isolates were 76.9%, 42.3%, and 34.6% co-insusceptible to tetracycline, erythromycin, and tetracycline plus erythromycin, respectively. Most penicillin-, tetracycline-, and erythromycin-insusceptible isolates were of capsular types 23 > 6 > 19 > 32, 19 > 6 > 28 > 23, and 19 > 6 > 14 > 23, respectively. Compared to winter 1994-1995, insusceptibility to penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin rose by some 4%, 4%, and 13%, respectively.
In the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (group A) and cefazolin (group B) groups, overall 346 and 352 patients, respectively, were evaluable for prophylactic efficacy at hospital discharge. Infectious complications were infrequent in both arms. Febrile morbidity occurred in 21 (6.1%) and 26 (7.4%) patients respectively in the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefazolin groups. Wound infection and urinary tract infection were also higher, but not significantly in the cefazolin group (1.1% versus 0.5% and 2.5% versus 2%, respectively). There was one respiratory tract infection (0.2%) in group B and no septic death in either groups.
Four thalassaemic patients with severe Yersinia enterocolitica infection were treated effectively with Augmentin. In three patients initial treatment with ampicillin and gentamicin was not effective. Augmentin was well tolerated and no toxic effects were detected on biochemical and haematological follow-up.
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Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis who underwent FESS were enrolled in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups: a study group and a control group. In the study group, patients took amoxicillin/clavulante for 3 weeks after FESS. In the control group, no antibiotic was given after FESS. Before FESS, all patients filled out a symptom questionnaire and received nasal endoscopy. Swab specimens were taken from the middle meati for bacterial cultures. These procedures were done again 3 weeks after FESS.
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A 63-year-old female patient was admitted to the department of neurology following an acute ischemic infarction of the right medial cerebral artery. She developed fever, respiratory failure, and hypotension and had to be transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) for intubation and mechanical ventilation. Chest X-ray showed increased density of the complete right hemi-thorax, indicative of massive pleural effusion. Chest tube drainage produced 1.5 l of pus in 1 h. Cultures revealed growth of Enterococcus faecalis. The patient was treated with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid with good clinical response. Enterococci very rarely cause spontaneous pleural empyema. The natural resistance of enterococci to several types of antibiotics can lead to selection of enterococci as seen in other clinical studies and may lead to this unusual clinical consequence.
To evaluate the efficacy of 3-day intravenous Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in patients with bleeding peptic ulcer associated with H. pylori infection.
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During the last three years, 79 adults suffering from acute epiglottitis have been treated in the ENT departments of the university hospital Rudolf Virchow, Berlin, 36 women (41 years of age as an average) and 43 men (average age 39 years). Acute epiglottitis developed either all of a sudden, within hours, or gradually, within days. All patients complained of dysphagia and pain in the throat; dyspnea could be observed in 20%. During examination, we could see an inflamed, thickened epiglottis with edema of the arytenoid cartilages. 55 patients reported an infection of the upper airway prior to the onset of symptoms of acute epiglottitis, epiglottic abscess developed in 11 adults. The inflammation responded satisfactorily to conservative antibiotic management (broad spectrum penicillin). Only one patient had to undergo intubation, none of the adults required tracheotomy.
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To report the use of Augmentin Duo 400/57 (GlaxoSmithKline, Middlesex, UK) in the treatment of childhood blepharokeratoconjunctivitis (BKC).
In a controlled, multicenter, investigator-blinded study, 437 ambulatory patients at least 12 years old with signs/symptoms and radiographic findings of acute sinusitis were randomized to receive clarithromycin ER 1000 mg once daily or amoxicillin/ clavulanate 875 mg/l25 mg twice daily for 14 days.
Pharmacokinetics of a parenteral formulation comprised of 5 parts of amoxicillin and 1 part of clavulanic acid were determined in 12 pediatric patients, 2 to 14 years of age. A single dose amounting to 25 mg of amoxicillin and 5 mg of clavulanic acid per kg of body weight was infused intravenously over 2 min. Mean plasma concentrations 5 min after dosing were 89.4 micrograms of amoxicillin per ml and 19.5 micrograms of clavulanic acid per ml. Terminal phase plasma half-lives were 1.2 and 0.8 h, respectively. The data acquired in this study indicate that amoxicillin and clavulanic acid are pharmacokinetically compatible. Moreover, taken with assessment of microbiological activities by others, the present data suggest that intravenous administration of 25 mg of amoxicillin plus 5 mg of clavulanic acid per kg every 6 h is a reasonable starting regimen for assessing the activity of the combined drug formulation in noninvasive childhood diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococci spp., Neisseria spp., Branhamella catarrhalis, and other susceptible organisms.