Helicobacter pylori eradication usually fails when clarithromycin is used against resistant strains.
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This study showed a high H. pylori prevalence (89%), low rates of clarithromycin and tetracycline resistance (1.7% and 2.5%, respectively), and a high rate of quinolone resistance (50%).
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Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer and gastric cancer and should be considered as a major public health issue. According to several international guidelines, first-line therapy for treating H. pylori infection consists of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) with any two antibiotics of amoxicillin, clarithromycin or metronidazole given for 7-14 days. However, even with the recommended treatment regimens, approximately 20% of patients will fail to obtain H. pylori eradication. The proportion of patients with first-line H. pylori therapy failure may be higher in clinical practice and it may increase thanks to diffusion of H. pylori treatment. The recommended second-line therapy is the quadruple regimen composed by tetracycline, metronidazole, bismuth salts and a PPI. However, the efficacy of this regimen is limited by poor patient's compliance due to its side effects, number of tablets per day, and long duration. Moreover, bismuth and metronidazole are not available in all countries. Alternatively, a longer-lasting (i.e. 10-14 days) PPI or RBC triple therapy with two antibiotics has generally been used. In an empirical strategy, the choice of second line depends on the treatment initially used. If a clarithromycin-based regimen was administered in first line, a quadruple regimen or PPI (or RBC) triple therapy with metronidazole and amoxicillin (or tetracycline) should be suggested as a second line. In case of second-line treatment failure, the patient should be evaluated by a case-by-case approach. A susceptibility-guided strategy, if available, is recommended in order to choose the best third-line treatment. Culture can reveal the presence of H. pylori-sensitive strains to clarithromycin (the best effective) or other antimicrobials (such as amoxicillin, metronidazole and tetracycline). Conversely, in an empirical strategy, a third-line not yet used therapy, can reach a high success rate. PPI or RBC, amoxicillin and a new antimicrobial (e.g. rifabutin, levofloxacin or furazolidone) could be used. Several studies have obtained relatively good results with triple therapy combining PPI, rifabutin, and amoxicillin, although a reversible myelotoxicity as leukopenia and thrombocytopenia has been described. Preliminary good results were also achieved with triples PPI regimens combining levofloxacin and amoxicillin without important adverse effects. Furazolidone has also shown efficacy for H. pylori eradication, although untoward reactions could limit its use, especially when high doses are employed. Finally, in more than one H. pylori treatment failure, non-antimicrobial add-on medications (such as lactoferrin, probiotics and others) could be used with the aim either to improve the eradication rate or to minimize side effects.
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Overproduction of nitric oxide by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) acts cytotoxically and contributes to inflammation. We explored the roles of iNOS in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases. Using reverse-transcribed PCR, we examined topographical patterns of iNOS mRNA expression in the gastroduodenal mucosa in H. pylori-negative controls and H. pylori-positive patients with duodenal ulcer (DU), gastric ulcer (GU), and ulcer-free gastritis. iNOS expression showed topographical variations among the tested disorders. As compared to controls, DU had a significantly higher expression of iNOS mRNA in the duodenum, GU in the antrum and duodenum, and gastritis in the antrum and corpus. H. pylori eradication yielded a significant reduction of iNOS mRNA in the duodenum of DU and in the antrum of GU. Diverse topographical patterns of H. pylori-induced iNOS expression may contribute to mechanisms by which H. pylori elicits different clinical disorders.
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A total of 24 NTM strains (13 Mycobacterium abscessus and 11 Mycobacterium massiliense) were isolated from 13 keratitis, 10 buckle infections, and 1 canaliculitis cases. Clinically, manifestations and outcomes caused by these two species were similar and surgical intervention was necessary for medically unresponsive NTM infection. Microbiologically, 100% of M. abscessus and 90.9% of M. massiliense ocular isolates were susceptible to amikacin but all were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Inducible clarithromycin resistance existed in 69.3% of M. abscessus but not in M. massiliense isolates. None of the AMK-CLA, AMK-MXF, AMK-GAF, CLA-MXF and CLA-GAF combinations showed synergistic or antagonistic effect against both species in vitro.
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A 32-year-old woman attended the Emergency Department of the hospital with severe visual hallucinations together with marked anxiety and nervousness following the second dose of clarithromycin, which was the only medication she was taking. The antibiotic was identified as the possible cause of the clinical manifestations and was stopped immediately. The patient did not require hospitalization and was discharged a few hours later with no signs of neurological disturbances. Clarithromycin was substituted by amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (500/125 mg) t.i.d.
No significant differences in cure rate and safety profiles were noted between the two regimens, suggesting that moderate acid inhibition using an H2-blocker is sufficient to achieve optimal H. pylori eradication.
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The study included 52 patients who underwent a triple therapy with PPI, clarithromycin and amoxicillin for 14 days between September 2001 and December 2002, and were found to be resistant to the therapy. They were randomized to take ranitidine bismuth citrate (Rb) 400 mg twice a day, tetracycline (T) 1 g twice a day and metronidazole (M) 500 mg three times a day for 14 days (RbTM), or ranitidine bismuth citrate (Rb) 400 mg twice a day for 14 days and azithromycin (A) 500 mg once a day for 7 days (RbA). Four weeks after the treatment, endoscopies were repeated, and patients were assessed with respect to changes in symptoms. When H. pylori was negative on histological analysis and urease test, eradication was achieved.
Of the 79 amplicons (DNA fragments amplified by polymerase chain reaction), Alw26I and MboII digestion disclosed the mutation in four (5%) and one (1%) respectively. However, the Alw26I cleavage was incomplete in two of the four amplicons, as was the MboII cleavage. Individual colony analysis of the isolates with incomplete cleavage patterns showed the presence of both wild type and mutated strains in the 23S rRNA genes.
A case of pacemaker infection complicated by bacteremia and myocardial abscess caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum is reported and 9 other cases of pacemaker infection associated with rapidly growing mycobacteria are reviewed. Most cases developed within 6 months from implantation suggesting nosocomial acquisition. Wound discharge, fever, and pain at generator site were the most common presenting features. At presentation they had a median duration of symptoms of 34 days. Concomitant bacteremia was present in half of the cases. Antibiotics therapy and removal of the pacemaker system were needed to achieve cure in the majority of cases. Clarithromycin and fluoroquinolones were the most commonly used antibiotics.