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BSI in Cambodian adults is mainly caused by difficult-to-treat pathogens. These data urge for microbiological capacity building, nationwide surveillance and solid interventions to contain antibiotic resistance.
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To evaluate the accuracy of PLA with a thin needle in the bacteriologic diagnosis of patients with lung abscess and in demonstrating possible coexistence of an underlying lung carcinoma, and the influence of this technique in the treatment and outcome of these patients.
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A cross-sectional study of nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae was performed among 573 children attending 29 day-care centers (DCCs) in Norway prior to the start of mass vaccination with the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7). A sensitive sampling method was employed, including transport in an enrichment broth and serotyping of pneumococci directly from the broth, in addition to traditional single-colony isolation from blood agar plates. The prevalence of carriage was high, peaking at 88.7% in 2-year-olds. More than one serotype was isolated from 12.7% of the carriers. Of 509 isolates obtained, 227 (44.6%) belonged to the PCV-7 serotypes. Penicillin nonsusceptibility was rare (1.8% of the isolates). Nonsusceptibility to erythromycin (5.9%), clindamycin (2.0%), and tetracycline (5.5%) was associated with PCV-7 serotypes (P < 0.001). Multilocus sequence typing was performed on the whole strain collection, revealing 102 sequence types (STs), of which 31 (30.4%) were novel. Eleven isolates (2.2%) belonged to the England(14)-9 clone, and 19 isolates (3.7%) belonged to, or were single-locus variants of, the Portugal(19F)-21 clone. The pneumococcal populations within the DCCs were composed of a majority of isolates with STs shared between the DCCs and a minority of isolates with STs unique for each DCC. The highest numbers of different STs, including novel STs, were found within the most frequent serotypes. Our study indicates that carriage of S. pneumoniae is highly prevalent among children in Norwegian DCCs, with a genetically diverse pneumococcal population consisting of unique microepidemic DCC populations.
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Clindamycin used alone or in combination with other antimicrobial drugs such as aminoglycosides, dioxidin and fluoroquinolones in the prophylaxis and treatment of infectious complications in oncological patients was shown to be highly efficient. When clindamycin was used prophylactically in combination with netilmicin, the postoperative infectious complications developed in 3 out of 27 patients with tumors of the head and neck, in 1 out of 24 patients with tumors of the rectum and colon and in 3 out of 16 patients with tumors of the female genitalia. The clinical effect was observed in 36 (87.8 per cent) out of 41 patients with postoperative wound infections and in 38 (82.5 per cent) out of 40 patients with pneumonia. Therefore, the use of clindamycin alone or in combination with other antimicrobial drugs is essential in the treatment of infectious complications in oncological patients.
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is known as a common pathogen in nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Sewage acts as an environmental reservoir and may have a significant role in development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance.
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Patients with hospital-acquired S. aureus infection from whom an isolate was available for molecular analysis were included. Clinical information was obtained from patient medical records and the electronic hospital information system. S. aureus isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and polymerase chain reaction testing for staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec, agr, the diamine N-acetyltransferase gene, and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes (pvl).
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The agar dilution MIC method was used to test the activity of cefminox, a beta-lactamase-stable cephamycin, compared with those of cefoxitin, cefotetan, moxalactam, ceftizoxime, cefotiam, cefamandole, cefoperazone, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 357 anaerobes. Overall, cefminox was the most active beta-lactam, with an MIC at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of 1.0 microg/ml and an MIC90 of 16.0 microg/ml. Other beta-lactams were less active, with respective MIC50s and MIC90s of 2.0 and 64.0 microg/ml for cefoxitin, 2.0 and 128.0 microg/ml for cefotetan, 2.0 and 64.0 microg/ml for moxalactam, 4.0 and > 128.0 microg/ml for ceftizoxime, 16.0 and > 128.0 microg/ml for cefotiam, 8.0 and >128.0 microg/ml for cefamandole, and 4.0 and 128.0 microg/ml for cefoperazone. The clindamycin MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.5 and 8.0 microg/ml, respectively, and the metronidazole MIC50 and MIC90 were 1.0 and 4.0 microg/ml, respectively. Cefminox was especially active against Bacteroides fragilis (MIC90, 2.0 microg/ml), Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (MIC90, 4.0 microg/ml), fusobacteria (MIC90, 1.0 microg/ml), peptostreptococci (MIC90, 2.0 microg/ml), and clostridia, including Clostridium difficile (MIC90, 2.0 microg/ml). Time-kill studies performed with six representative anaerobic species revealed that at the MIC all compounds except ceftizoxime were bactericidal (99.9% killing) against all strains after 48 h. At 24 h, only cefminox and cefoxitin at 4x the MIC and cefoperazone at 8x the MIC were bactericidal against all strains. After 12 h, at the MIC all compounds except moxalactam, ceftizoxime, cefotiam, cefamandole, clindamycin, and metronidazole gave 90% killing of all strains. After 3 h, cefminox at 2 x the MIC produced the most rapid effect, with 90% killing of all strains.
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Staphylococcus aureus causes food poisoning due to its ability to produce enterotoxins. Food handlers carrying enterotoxin-producing S. aureus can contaminate food, thus leading to food poisoning. Samples were obtained from 88 food handlers in the Province of Misiones, Argentina. S. aureus was isolated from nasal swaps and PCR amplification was performed for genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins. A total of 37.5 % food handlers were positive for S. aureus. Expression of enterotoxin genes was found in 13 of the 33 (39.4 %) S. aureus isolates studied, accounting for 14.7 % of food handlers. Gene sea was detected in 10 isolates followed by gene sec in 3 isolates. All isolates were susceptible to teicoplanin, gentamicin and rifampicin. Four isolates were resistant to methicillin whereas 2 isolates were resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin. These results constitute a critical alert and indicate the need for developing rational measures to reduce the potential risk of food poisoning.
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The potential in vitro synergistic effect of ciprofloxacin associated with mezlocillin, cefoxitin and clindamycin was evaluated against 30 strains of Bacteroides fragilis. All bacteria were clinical isolates, identified by gas chromatography and fermentation of carbohydrates. MICs of the drugs were determined by a miniaturized dilution broth method. Resistance or susceptibility to the drugs was not a criterion for the selection of the strains. Antibacterial combinations were tested by a checkerboard method utilizing brain hearth infusion broth and a bacterial inoculum of 10(6) CFU/ml. Microtitre plates were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h in anaerobic jars (BBL). Prereduced chopped meat carbohydrate broth was used to store and culture the strains. The effect of antimicrobial combinations was defined on the basis of the fractionary inhibitory concentration (FIC) indexes. We considered: synergistic effect FIC less than or equal to 0.5; additive effect FIC = 0.5-0.75; indifferent effect FIC = 0.76-2.0; antagonism FIC greater than or equal to 2. Ciprofloxacin + clindamycin showed synergistic activity against 10 strains out of 26 (38%); ciprofloxacin + mezlocillin against 9 strains out of 30 (30%); and ciprofloxacin + cefoxitin against 8 out of 29 strains (28%). Each antibiotic combination showed an additive or indifferent effect against all remaining bacteria. The synergistic effect of ciprofloxacin represents an important advantage in allowing the reduction of the dosage of associated drugs such as aminoglycosides or beta-lactams that can potentially be responsible for damage or side-effects.
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to investigate the incidence of intraoperative graft contamination, bacterial species and the influence of change of surgeon's gloves on contamination.
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Endophthalmitis occurred in 8 (2.3%) of 167 eyes in the control group and only in 1 (0.3%) of 179 eyes in the case group (P = .04; odds ratio, 8.93 [95% confidence interval, 1.11-71.43]). In eyes with an intraocular foreign body, endophthalmitis developed in 7 of 25 control eyes and in none of 27 eyes receiving antibiotics. However, in eyes without an intraocular foreign body, endophthalmitis developed in 1 of 142 eyes and 1 of 152 eyes in the 2 groups, respectively (P value for interaction = .04). Intravitreal injection was superior to intracameral injection in preventing endophthalmitis (P value for interaction = .01). Vitreous culture results were positive in 6 (67%) of 9 eyes with endophthalmitis.