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An abamectin (ABM)-degrading bacterium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ZJB-14120, was isolated and identified. This strain is capable of degrading 84.82% of ABM at an initial concentration of 200 mg/L over a 48 h incubation period. This strain showed efficient biodegradation ability (7.81 mg/L/h) to ABM and high tolerance (1000 mg/L) to all macrolides tested. In addition to ABM, emamectin, erythromycin and spiramycin can also be degraded by this strain. Modifications involving either reduction of the double bond between C22-C23 or replacement of the C25-group of ABM with a cyclohexyl group can completely inhibit biodegradation of ABM. The ABM-degrading capability of strain ZJB-14120 is likely to be intrinsic to its metabolism and could be inhibited by incubating with erythromycin, azithromycin, spiramycin or rifampicin. A new and successive degradation pathway was proposed based on metabolite analysis. Although there is evidence for metabolite inhibition, this strain has high ABM degradation activity and reusability. Further investigation showed that activated macrolide efflux pump(s) and an undetermined mechanism for regulating the intracellular ABM concentration are responsible for normal uptake of essential metabolites while pumping out excess harmful compounds. Strain ZJB-14120 may provide efficient treatment of water and soil contaminated by toxic levels of abamectin and emamectin.
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No trials were designed to evaluate whether the interventions for trichiasis prevent blindness as an outcome; however, several found modest improvement in vision following intervention. Certain interventions have been shown to be more effective at eliminating trichiasis. Full-thickness incision of the tarsal plate and rotation of the lash-bearing lid margin was found to be the best technique and is preferably delivered in the community. Surgery may be carried out by an ophthalmologist or a trained ophthalmic assistant. Surgery performed with silk or absorbable sutures gave comparable results. Post-operative azithromycin was found to improve outcomes where overall recurrence was low.
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Fluoroquinolones are recommended as first-line therapy for typhoid and paratyphoid fever, but how they compare with other cheaper antibiotics and different fluoroquinolones is unclear.
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Seven countries in Latin America and the Caribbean report on (2010 and 2011) the susceptibility of 2235 isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to 6 antibiotics. Thirteen isolates had ceftriaxone minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.125 to ≥ 0.25 mg/L. The percentage of resistant isolates to the following antibiotics was: azithromycin, 1.0% to 1.7%; ciprofloxacin, 42.1% to 36.2%; penicillin, 31% to 35%; tetracycline, 21.8% to 22.6%.
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In recent clinical trials acithromycin in combination with artemisinin derivatives proved to be a promising combination therapy with indifferent to synergistic interaction. The aim of the present study was the assessment of optimal combination ratios for dihydroartemisinin and azithromycin for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. The study was conducted in Bandarban, in Southeastern Bangladesh. Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected as part of a clinical trial were cultured for 72 hours. Samples were analyzed using the HRP2 drug sensitivity assay in fixed combinations and checkerboard assays. An indifferent mode of interaction was found for the 1:500 combination of dihydroartemisinine and azithromycin. The sum fractional inhibitory concentrations (SFICs) at IC95 ranged from 0.89 to 1.16 for combination ratios of 1:500 and 1:5000, respectively. A trend towards lower SFICs was observed with rising inhibitory concentrations (i.e. at IC90 and IC95). Correlation analysis suggests a different mode of action for azithromycin as compared to traditional antimalarials.
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38 isolates classified as resistant to macrolide antimicrobials or rifampin received from 9 veterinary diagnostic laboratories between January 1997 and December 2008.
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Chemotherapy comprised azithromycin 10 mg/kg and rifabutin 6 mg/kg both given once daily for 6 mo. Ninety-eight children with NTM infection were seen in the period 1990-2004. Sixty-eight cases with adenopathy where "time to healing" (discharge stopped and inflammation settled) was known were available to compare response to treatment.
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Consecutive HIV-infected patients with early syphilis, who received 2 g single-dose azithromycin or 2.4 MU benzathine penicillin G, between 2007 and 2014, were prospectively observed. Genotypic resistance to macrolides was determined in Treponema pallidum isolates identified from clinical specimens using PCR assays. Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titres were determined at baseline and every 3 months after treatment. Primary outcome was a decline of RPR titre by ≥4-fold at 12 months after treatment.
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Enteric fever's incidence is decreasing among residents of high-income countries, although it's rising in travelers coming from low-resource endemic settings. The study's aim is to describe epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of patients with enteric fever.