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Moraxella catarrhalis previously considered as commensal of upper respiratory tract has gained importance as a pathogen responsible for respiratory tract infections. Its beta-lactamase-producing ability draws even more attention toward its varying patterns of resistance.
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H. pylori eradication rates of ELAz and ECA were similar at intention-to-treat (both 65%) and per-protocol analyses (70% versus 76%, respectively). Incidence of poor compliance was lower, although not significantly, in patients randomised to ELAz than to ECA (4% versus 10%); tolerability was significantly higher for ELAz than for ECA (88% versus 70%; P=0.01).
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Results of the present study, based on its safety, effectiveness and innovative features, indicate that this combination of topical cream may be considered as a new alternative for treatment and prevention of paronychia, especially in case of occupational hand disease where prolonged treatment and continuous prevention are needed.
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All cases of presumptive community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adult patients admitted to a community/teaching hospital during the first 6 months of 1993 were reviewed. A total of 67 patients ranging in age from 20-90 years (73% > 60 years) had CAP. Fifteen (22%) patients were receiving antibiotics before admission. A typical respiratory pathogen was identified in only 18 (27%) patients. Empiric parenteral antibiotics were initiated in all but 2 patients. These agents usually included cefuroxime (42%), ampicillin/sulbactam (28%), or ceftriaxone (14%). Concomitant erythromycin (25%) or clarithromycin (17%) was used empirically in 42% of patients. Parenteral antibiotics were given for a mean of 5.2 days (median, 4 days). The mean therapy cost of these common parenteral agents ranged from $69.50 (cefuroxime, 750 mg every 8 hours) to $271 (ceftriaxone, 1 gram every 12 hours). Hospitalization ranged from 2-37 days (mean, 8.3 days; median, 6 days). A total of 50 patients were switched to oral antibiotics. Prescriptions for outpatient therapy ranged from 5-21 days (mean, 8.6 days; median, 7 days). The most common oral antibiotics included cefuroxime (33%), clarithromycin (20%), and amoxicillin/clavulanate (20%). The mean therapy cost for these drugs ranged from $85.19 (cefuroxime, 500 mg every 12 hours) to $39.24 (clarithromycin, 500 mg every 12 hours). This study found that empiric therapy with low-dose parenteral cefuroxime, with or without erythromycin, followed by outpatient clarithromycin was less costly than other common regimens used to treat CAP.
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Community-acquired pneumonia remains a significant health concern despite the availability of effective antibiotics. This randomized, double-masked, double-dummy, multicenter comparative trial was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of sparfloxacin with those of clarithromycin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. In 54 centers throughout the United States, 342 patients aged > or = 18 years with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled in this trial. A total of 167 patients, 98 males and 69 females with a mean age of 51.0 years (range, 18-87), received a 400-mg loading dose of sparfloxacin on the first day, followed by 200 mg once daily for a total of 10 days. A total of 175 patients, 85 males and 90 females with a mean age of 51.3 years (range, 18-91), received clarithromycin 250 mg twice daily for 10 days. In the intent-to-treat population, 133 (79.6%) patients in the sparfloxacin group and 145 (82.9%) in the clarithromycin group were cured or improved (the 95% confidence interval [CI] for the differences in success rate between sparfloxacin and clarithromycin was -11.5% to 5.1%). Success rates for the per-protocol patients were 88.7% (133/150) in the sparfloxacin group and 88.9% (144/162) in the clarithromycin groups (95% CI, -7.2% to 6.8%). There were no significant differences in success rate between treatment groups based on age > or = 65 years. The overall bacteriologic response rates in the bacteriologically assessable population were 97.0% (64/66 isolates) in the sparfloxacin group and 91.4% (74/81 isolates) in the clarithromycin group. Recurrence occurred in 6.0% of per-protocol patients in the sparfloxacin group and 6.3% of patients in the clarithromycin group. The overall frequency of adverse events was 56.3% in the sparfloxacin group and 65.1% in the clarithromycin group. Gastrointestinal disturbances were the most common adverse event in both groups. Abnormal taste related to study drug was reported by 17 patients (9.7%) treated with clarithromycin, versus 3 patients (1.8%) treated with sparfloxacin (P = 0.002). Photosensitivity reactions were reported in 10 patients (6.0%) treated with sparfloxacin, versus 1 patient (0.6%) treated with clarithromycin (P = 0.002). QT-interval prolongation was documented in 4 patients (2.4%) in the sparfloxacin group and no patients in the clarithromycin group. Thus sparfloxacin was as well tolerated and as effective as clarithromycin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.
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In addition to their well-known antimicrobial activity, macrolides possess immunomodulatory properties that may confer beneficial effects to patients with respiratory diseases associated with chronic inflammation. These properties include attenuation of inflammatory responses in the lung, mucoregulatory properties, and effects on bronchial responsiveness. Macrolides increase mucociliary clearance, improve sinusitis symptoms, and decrease nasal secretions and polyp size in patients with sinusitis. They also have been shown to modify the inflammatory response associated with chronic sinusitis. In patients with asthma, macrolides have been reported to reduce airway hyperresponsiveness and improve pulmonary function, and have historically been selected for their "steroid-sparing" effect. Preliminary data from studies of patients with COPD have shown improvements in symptom scores and FEV(1) after macrolide treatment. As biological response modifiers, macrolides have the potential to improve the outcomes of patients with inflammatory airway diseases. Large scale, placebo-controlled clinical trials designed to assess long-term efficacy and safety in these diseases are warranted.
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Clarithromycin (Biaxin) extended-release tablets, an advanced generation macrolide, were recently introduced into the USA for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, community-acquired pneumonia and acute maxillary sinusitis. The reformulation is intended to improve both patient compliance and tolerability. The extended-release tablets allow convenient once-daily dosing (1000 mg). The extended-release formulation has been shown to be equivalent to the immediate-release formulation concerning area under the plasma concentration time curve. In comparative clinical trials for acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, community-acquired pneumonia and acute maxillary sinusitis, clarithromycin extended-release tablets were equivalent to the immediate-release formulation concerning clinical efficacy and bacterial eradication, with improved gastrointestinal tolerability. Similar efficacy and gastrointestinal tolerability results were demonstrated in a recent comparative study of clarithromycin extended-release formulation and amoxicillin-clavulanate in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Clarithromycin extended-release 1000 mg daily has also been shown to be equivalent to levofloxacin 500 mg daily for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in a recent study. The macrolide class of antimicrobials, including clarithromycin extended-release, continues to be a safe and efficacious choice for the out-patient management of community-acquired bacterial respiratory tract infections.
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Circulating meal-associated leptin and ghrelin levels and BMI changed significantly after H. pylori eradication, providing direct evidence that H. pylori colonization is involved in ghrelin and leptin regulation, with consequent effects on body morphometry.