A parallel microdevice has been developed for high throughput analysis using microfluidics. The detection method is based on a chemiluminescence (CL) system based on the oxidation of tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) Ru(ll) [Ru (bipy)3(2+)] by peroxydisulfate. The device consists of a photoreactor chip and two detection chips. The sample throughput can reach up to 720 runs/h with the total reagent consumption of only 2.4 mL. The parallel microdevice was evaluated using levofloxacin (LEVO) in pharmaceutical preparations. The various factors that affect the CL signal were optimized, and the LOD was found to be 30 and 27 microg/L for the two detectors, respectively (S/N = 3), while RSD was 1.1% (n = 15) for 1.0 mg/L LEVO. Two tablet samples that contain LEVO as an active ingredient were successfully analyzed using the proposed parallel microdevice.
Bacteria treated with different classes of antibiotics exhibit changes in susceptibility to successive antibiotic treatments. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of sequential antibiotic treatments on the development of antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae associated with β-lactamase and efflux pump activities.
leflox 500 mg
Pyrazinamide and fluoroquinolones are essential antituberculosis drugs in new rifampicin-sparing regimens. However, little information about the extent of resistance to these drugs at the population level is available.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for causing a wide variety of acute and chronic infections with significant levels of morbidity and mortality. These infections are very hard to eradicate because of the expression of numerous virulence factors and the intrinsic resistance against antibiotics. Herein, this study analyzed antimicrobial susceptibility of PA isolated from broiler chickens and cattle as well as expression of five significant exotoxin genes (exoU, exoS, toxA, lasB, and phzM) and ecfX as internal control. Genomic DNA was amplified employing oprL gene for species specific detection of PA. The highest resistance was found to ampicillin, erythromycin, followed by, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline, intermediately sensitive to ceftazidime, cefoperazone, and highly sensitive to gentamicin, levofloxacin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin and colistin. It appears that exoU+ and increased resistance to SXT may be co-selected traits. Vast majority of PA isolates expressed exoS (78.6%), exoU (71.4%) and both in more virulent strains. The ubiquity of toxA, lasB, exoU and exoS among PA clinical isolates is consistent with an important role for these virulence factors in chicken respiratory diseases and cattle mastitis that can be highlighted as potential therapeutic targets for treatment of infections caused by heterogeneous and resistant PA strains.
leflox medicine in pakistan
Garenoxacin showed the most potent chlamydial activity against Chlamydia trachomatis D/UW-3/Cx among three tested quinolones and azithromycin. The DNA gyrase genes, gyrA and gyrB, of C. trachomatis D/UW-3/Cx were cloned and the GyrA and GyrB subunits of DNA gyrase protein were separately expressed as histidine-tagged proteins in Escherichia coli. The mean 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of garenoxacin against the supercoiling activity of C. trachomatis D/UW-3/Cx gyrase was 2.9 ± 0.4 μg/ml, which was the most potent inhibitory activity against DNA gyrase among the quinolones tested in this study. At an extracellular concentration of 0.5 μg/ml, the cellular-to-extracellular concentration ratio of garenoxacin was 15.3 ± 1.3, equivalent to that of moxifloxacin and greater than that of levofloxacin. In a time-kill experiment, after exposure to garenoxacin at a concentration of 0.5 μg/ml at 0-6, 5-11, and 24-30 h after infection, the percentages of recoverable chlamydial inclusion-forming units were 11.1 ± 3.3, 0.6 ± 0.1, and 2.6 ± 0.5%, respectively. On transmission electron microscopy observation, after exposure to garenoxacin at 24-30 h after infection, some C. trachomatis elementary bodies remained in the inclusion body; however, the reticulate bodies were completely disrupted. In conclusion, garenoxacin is expected to be a useful quinolone in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by C. trachomatis.
leflox 500mg tablet
A rise of resistance in uropathogens to all agents used for the management of urinary tract infections has been observed in Moscow. However, because of the broad spectrum and favourable safety parameters, fluoroquinolones remain the drugs of choice for the treatment of community-acquired urinary tract infections. Among them levofloxacin is preferable. When the use of fluoroquinolones is contraindicated, the 1st-3rd generation cephalosporins are advisable. Nitrofurans are expedient in the treatment of acute and relapsing cystitis. By the antibacterial activity and bioavailability sodium furasidin is advantages among the nitrofurans.
leflox 250 dosage
Case report and review of the medical literature
leflox 500 mg tablet
Over the past decade, bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter have emerged as a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Outbreaks of Acinetobacter infections are considered to be caused exclusively by contamination and transmission in hospital environments. The natural habitats of clinically important multiresistant Acinetobacter spp. remain to be defined. In this paper, we report an incidental finding of a viable multidrug-resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii, related to clinical isolates, in acid paleosol from Croatia. The environmental isolate of A. baumannii showed 87% similarity to a clinical isolate originating from a hospital in this geographic area and was resistant to gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin. In paleosol, the isolate was able to survive a low pH (3.37), desiccation, and a high temperature (50°C). The probable source of A. baumannii in paleosol is illegally disposed waste of external origin situated in the abandoned quarry near the sampling site. The bacteria could have been leached from waste by storm water and thus infiltrated the paleosol.
leflox 500 mg price
Resistance among gram-negative bacteria is increasing within the US.
A 39-year-old Chinese male presented with fever, sore throat and non-productive cough. During his illness, serial chest radiographs showed increasingly severe air-space shadowing in both lungs.
leflox tablets uses
Histamine releases induced by the fluoroquinolone antimicrobial levofloxacin (LVFX) were investigated using mast cells separated from various organs and peripheral basophils of dogs, being the most susceptible species to quinolone derivatives, in both in vivo and in vitro systems. An intravenous infusion of LVFX at 30 mg/kg over a 30-min period produced endogenous histamine release from 5 min, and a maximum at 30 min, in which the plasma LVFX concentration was approximately 50 microM. A close correlation (r = 0.87, n = 20) between histamine and LVFX concentrations in plasma during the infusion was observed. In the in vitro study, LVFX at 30 microM or more caused histamine release from mast cells separated from the liver and skin, but not from the gastric mucosa, lung, and peripheral basophils. More exactly, the liver mast cells were most susceptible to LVFX among the organs tested. On the other hand, compound 48/80, a prototype histamine liberator, elicited the histamine release from the liver or skin mast cells at 10 microg/ml, and the calcium ionophore A23187 at 1 microM exhibited the histamine release from the mast cells derived from all organs examined. Histochemical analysis revealed that the liver and skin mast cells had positive reaction for both alcian blue and safranin staining, but the gastric mucosa and lung mast cells were only positive for alcian blue staining, indicating that LVFX preferably activated the connective tissue-type mast cells rather than the mucosal-type mast cells. The degranulation of the liver and skin mast cells brought about by either LVFX or compound 48/80, unlike the calcium ionophore A23187, was blocked by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, suggesting the involvement of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins. The results obtained from the canine experiments strongly suggest that LVFX induces histamine release from the connective tissue-type mast cells distributed mainly in the liver, somewhat in the cutaneous tissue, through the activation of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins.
leflox 500 mg indications
Hospitals collect the antibiotic consumption data according to the legal requirements and provide the data in the form of defined daily doses (DDD) per active substance as suggested in the recommendations for the implementation of the law by the Robert Koch-Institute. Given the number of patient days the DDD/100 patient days could be calculated allowing a comparison between the hospitals. In 2015 the public health office additionally collected organizational and structural data on antimicrobial consumption.