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This cross sectional study was conducted to identify the common bacterial causes of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) from sputum and blood by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to evaluate the effectiveness of these tests. A total of 105 sputum and blood samples were collected from patients with pneumonia on clinical suspicion. Common causative bacterial agents of pneumonia were detected by Gram staining, cultures, biochemical tests and PCR. Among 55 sputum culture positive cases, a majority (61.82%) of the patients were in the age group between 21-50 years and the ratio between male and female was 2.5:1. Most (61.90%) of the cases were from the lower socio-economic group. Out of 105 samples, 23 (37.12%) were positive by Gram stain, 29 (27.62%) yielded growth in culture media and 37 (35.24%) were positive by PCR for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common aetiological agent (19.05%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.33%), Haemophilus influenzae (8.57%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.71%). Multiplex PCR is a useful technique for rapid diagnosis of bacterial causes of pneumonia directly from sputum and blood. Considering culture as a gold standard, the sensitivity of PCR was 96.55% and specificity was 88.15%. More than 80% of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were found to be sensitive to ampicillin, amoxycillinclavulanate, and ceftriaxone. Susceptibilities to other antimicrobials ranged from 65% for azithromycin to 70% for levofloxacin. On the other hand, the Gram negative organisms were more sensitive to meropenem, ceftriaxone, amoxycillin-clavulanate and amikacin.
The bacterial spectrum is changing. The most effective drugs are chloramphenicol and fusidic acid, followed by ciprofloxacin. Specific systemic and local predisposing factors promote the risk of bacterial keratitis.
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H. pylori-positive patients were treated initially with a first-line eradication triple regimen consisting of omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin and subsequently with a second-line quadruple regimen consisting of omeprazole, bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline. Finally, after two previous H. pylori eradication failures, patients received omeprazole, amoxicillin, and levofloxacin, as a third-line empirical strategy. The success rate was calculated by both intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses.
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Antibacterial overuse, misuse and resistance have become a major global threat. The Joint Commission International (JCI) accreditation standards include quality improvement and patient safety, which is exemplified by antimicrobial stewardship. There are currently few reports on interventions to improve the quality of outpatient antibacterial prescribing.
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To investigate the male urogenital tract mycoplasma infection and drug-resistance evolution in 2001 and 2003.
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Although relatively high levels of levofloxacin resistance were detected in China and Hong Kong, overall, levofloxacin remained active against >99% of clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae despite their resistance to other agents. Continued surveillance of S. pneumoniae will track any changes in levofloxacin activity, should they occur.
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Comparison of MIC results obtained in different parts of the world is currently difficult because of variations in methods. In this study, cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth, the NCCLS-recommended medium, was compared with Iso-Sensitest broth, which is widely used in Europe. Microbroth dilution testing, using the NCCLS procedure, was performed on 124 Gram-positive (staphylococci and enterococci) and Gram-negative (Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) isolates from the CDC reference set, with the only variable being the medium used. Twelve antimicrobial agents were tested: amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, imipenem, levofloxacin, oxacillin, gemifloxacin, trimethoprim- sulphamethoxazole, tetracycline and vancomycin. Vancomycin, erythromycin and oxacillin were only evaluated for the Gram-positive organisms. Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was only evaluated for a subset of Gram-negative organisms because of off-scale results. The 124 isolates were tested in one American and one UK laboratory with two batches of cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth and two of Iso-Sensitest broth. A statistical evaluation of the data used a 24 fully specified factorial analysis to determine if there were significant differences in results owing to Gram reaction, site of testing and type and/or batch of broth. In addition, the cumulative results for each antimicrobial agent in each broth were plotted against the range of MIC dilutions tested. MICs of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gemifloxacin, gentamicin and tetracycline were slightly higher (half a doubling dilution) with Iso-Sensitest broth than with Mueller-Hinton broth. MIC results for the other antimicrobial agents were equivalent. Essential and category agreement rates were comparable for all agents (88.4-100% and 88.2-99.0%, respectively).
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Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) is a leading cause of gastroduodenal disease, including gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication therapies and their efficacy are summarized. A number of current treatment regimens will reliably yield >90% or 95% cure rates with susceptible strains. None has proven to be superior. We show how to predict the efficacy of a regimen in any population provided one knows the prevalence of antibiotic resistance. As with other infectious diseases, therapy should always be susceptibility-based. Susceptibility testing should be demanded. We provide recommendations for empiric therapies when that is the only option and describe how to distinguish studies providing misinformation from those providing reliable and interpretable data. When treated as an infectious disease, high H. pylori cure rates are relatively simple to reliably achieve.
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To report the clinical settings, antibiotic susceptibilities, and outcomes of endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus species.
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The new quinolones show great potential in the treatment of invasive infections caused by both penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant pneumococci.