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Amoxicillin still possesses powerful antimicrobial activity against major pathogens in orofacial odontogenic infections. Amoxicillin/clavulanate and clindamycin would also be advocated as being useful alternatives for the management of severe orofacial infections. However, the findings of this study indicate that erythromycin is of questionable benefit in the treatment of severe orofacial odontogenic infections.
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Nosocomial infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) could lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In 2006, VRE nosocomial spread became a reality in our hospital since the first VRE nosocomial infection in 2003. Little is known about the prevalence of coexistence with VRE and MRSA in the patients. The primary objective of the study was to identify the molecular characteristics of epidemic MRSA clones in our hospital and the prevalence of the coexistence with MRSA and VRE in same patients during the 2-year period, 2006 - 2007.
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Of the 100 patients, 13 (13%) had a stool culture positive for fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli. In 4 (31%) of these 13 patients, acute bacterial prostatitis was detected after TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. Of the 87 patients whose stool culture was negative for fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli, none had acute bacterial prostatitis. All 13 infected patients were treated with carbapenems immediately after diagnosis of prostatitis and made a complete recovery.
H. pylori strains were isolated from 436 patients who underwent gastroscopy for different clinical indications. Susceptibility to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, tetracycline, levofloxacin, and rifabutin was determined using the E-test.
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Prulifloxacin is a promising fluoroquinolone antibiotic. A multicentre, double-blind, randomized clinical study was designed to evaluate its efficacy and safety compared to that of levofloxacin for the treatment of respiratory and urinary infections of Chinese patients.
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Prospective, open-label study.
This clinical driven report describes the unexpected detection of a multidrug resistant (MDR) Streptococcus pneumoniae strain. Italy is usually considered a country characterized by a low prevalence of MDR S. pneumoniae. We describe the occurrence of bacterial meningitis sustained by a MDR S. pneumoniae strain in Italy. The first-line treatment was started with ceftriaxone and dexamethasone, but after the identification of such a resistant strain a second-line regimen was needed. The new regimen was chosen on both susceptibility and pharmacokinetic criteria. Linezolid and levofloxacin were started and a dramatic improvement was observed. A more sensitive anamnesis revealed some elements known to be associated to a MDR S. pneumoniae occurrence (immunesuppression, former antibiotic therapy). So this case should pinpoint our attention on risk factors of MDR for a careful choice of antibiotic therapy in serious pneumococcal infections.
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Acinetobacter ursingii bacteremia is rarely reported. We investigated the incidence and clinical features of A. ursingii bacteremia, performance of the identification system, and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. Acinetobacter ursingii bacteremia patients were compared with A. baumannii bacteremia patients.
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Transport of quinolone antimicrobials and the contribution of the secretory transporter P-glycoprotein were studied in-vivo and in-vitro. In rat intestinal tissue (Ussing chambers method) and human Caco-2 cells (Transwell method), grepafloxacin showed secretory-directed transport. In both experimental systems, the secretory-directed transport was decreased by ciclosporin A, an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, and probenecid, an inhibitor of anion transport systems. This suggested the contribution of P-glycoprotein and anion-sensitive transporter(s). The involvement of P-glycoprotein was investigated by using a P-glycoprotein over-expressing cell line, LLC-GA5-COL150, and P-glycoprotein-gene-deficient mice (mdr1a(-/-)/1b(-/-) mice). LLC-GA5-COL150 cells showed secretory-directed transport of grepafloxacin, while the parent cell line, LLC-PK1, did not. The secretory-directed transport of sparfloxacin and levofloxacin was also detected in LLC-GA5-COL150 cells. In the mdr1a(-/-)/1b(-/-) mice, the intestinal secretory clearance was smaller than that in wild-type mice after intravenous administration of grepafloxacin. Moreover, the absorption from an intestinal loop in mdr1a(-/-)/1b(-/-) mice was larger than that in wild-type mice. Accordingly, it appears that some quinolones are transported by secretory transporters, including P-glycoprotein. The involved transporters function in-vivo not only to transport grepafloxacin from blood to intestine but also to limit its intestinal absorption.