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To determine whether gatifloxacin-resistant S. aureus (Gat-R-Sa) keratitis could be successfully treated with topical Zymar (gatifloxacin 0.3%) in a rabbit model.
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Fluoroquinolones appear to have a pathological influence on intracellular calcium handling. A pre-existing impairment of the calcium homeostasis, however, seems to be necessary for this behavior.
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To determine the prevalence of UTI, the common causative bacteria, and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern among pregnant women with UTI.
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Prescription of interacting antimicrobial drugs to patients on sulfonylureas is very common, and is associated with substantial morbidity and increased costs.
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Topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase were purified from a ciprofloxacin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae strain and from two clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae with high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin by means of a gene cloning method in Escherichia coli. All the quinolones tested (gemifloxacin, trovafloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and grepafloxacin) were able to inhibit topoisomerase IV at lower concentrations than those required for DNA gyrase, suggesting that topoisomerase IV is the primary target in the three pneumococci, in agreement with recently published enzyme data. Gemifloxacin (SB-265805) was found to be the most active agent against topoisomerase IV but, surprisingly, not against DNA gyrase. These findings indicate that the potent in vitro activity of gemifloxacin against S. pneumoniae, including ciprofloxacin-resistant strains, results from a strong affinity for pneumococcal topoisomerase IV.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of cefditoren and comparators against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs). A total of 391 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 266 H. influenzae, and 76 M. catarrhalis were isolated from 10 centers located at 6 cities in China from January 2009 to May 2010. The microdilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The pneumococci comprised 189 (48.3%) penicillin susceptible, 129 (33.0%) penicillin intermediate, and 73 (18.7%) penicillin resistant. Moxifloxacin and levofloxacin showed the highest activity (99.2% and 97.7%, respectively) against Streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by parenteral penicillin G (95.7%), cefditoren (83.1%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (79.3%). Among the 266 H. influenzae isolates, 26 (9.8%) were ampicillin-resistant β-lactamase-producing strains and 24 (9.0%) were ampicillin-resistant β-lactamase-nonproducing strains (BLNAR). Most of antimicrobial agents demonstrated good activity (>97% susceptibility) against H. influenzae except ampicillin, cefuroxime, and cefaclor, which showed relatively lower activity (81.2%, 88.7%, and 88%, respectively). Cefditoren showed excellent activity with the lowest MIC(50) and MIC(90) (≤0.016/0.064 μg/mL) among all tested drugs, which is independent of β-lactamase production or ampicillin resistance. Cefditoren at a concentration of 0.5 μg/mL inhibited all BLNAR strains. Seventy of 76 isolates of M. catarrhalis produced β-lactamase. Cefditoren also showed excellent activity with MIC(90) of 0.064 μg/mL against β-lactamase-nonproducing strains and 0.5 μg/mL against β-lactamase-producing strains. In conclusion, the excellent intrinsic activity of cefditoren suggests that it may be a good choice for the treatment of CARTIs caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis in China, while the activity should be closely monitored.
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The in vitro activity of gatifloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone, was compared to that of five other fluoroquinolones against 105 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates and 52 Burkholderia spp. isolates. The gatifloxacin MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method and the E test (AB Biodisk, Sweden); these methods were compared for test accuracy, and 5 microg disk zone diameters were compared for interpretive accuracy using the standardized disk diffusion method. In terms of potency, gatifloxacin was most similar to sparfloxacin and trovafloxacin against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (MIC50, 0.5-1 mg/l) and Burkholderia spp. (MIC50, 1-2 mg/l). This activity was greater than that of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin or ofloxacin (MIC50, > or = 2 mg/l) against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates but comparable to that of levofloxacin against the Burkholderia spp. (60% susceptible at < or = 2 mg/l). The E test results compared well with the reference dilution test results (81-97% at +/- 1 log2 dilution). The disk diffusion test using previously suggested breakpoints for other bacteria (> or = 18 mm or < or = 2 mg/l for susceptible and < or = 14 mm or > or = 8 mg/l for resistant) also performed well, at > 90% categorical agreement. The activity of gatifloxacin is comparable to that of other newer quinolones against isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Burkholderia spp., and susceptibility testing using simple qualitative and quantitative methods appears to function well with these drug/organism combinations.
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Penicillin binding protein (pbp) gene alterations of 328 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were examined for a correlation with their antibiotic-resistance. The frequency of penicillin G (PEN-G) resistance was determined to clarify susceptibility to several antibiotics, namely PEN-G, ampicillin, sulbactam/ampicillin, cefozopram, panipenem (PAPM), clarithromycin (CLR), azithromycin (AZM) and levofloxacin (LVX). Oligonucleotide primers for three pbp genes (pbp1a, pbp2x and pbp2b) were used to detect mutations in pbp. Of the strains, 25.9% were classified as Pen-Gs, 68.0% as Pen-Gir and 6.1% as Pen-Gr. The polymerase chain reaction product for wild-type pbp1a was found in 185 isolates, that for wild-type pbp2x was found in 66 isolates and that for wild-type pbp2b was found in 213 isolates. None of these three genes was detectable in 100 isolates while all of them were detected in 64 isolates (1aw/2xw/2bw). Of those 64 isolates with 1aw/2xw/2bw, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PEN-G was < or =0.06 mg/l for 54 isolates and 0.12 mg/l for 10 isolates. Of the 272 strains for which the MIC of PAPM was < or =0.03 mg/l, there were 85 Pen-Gs, 184 Pen-Gir and three Pen-Gr isolates. Three strains for which the MIC of LVX was > or =4.0 mg/l included one Pen-Gs and two Pen-Gir isolates. The MICs of CLR correlated significantly with those of AZM. The MIC of CLR was > or =1 mg/l for 216 isolates, and the MIC of AZM was > or =1 mg/l for 244 of them. These data suggested that PAPM may be effective against S. pneumoniae infection, although acquisition of resistance should be considered. LVX also seemed to be effective against S. pneumoniae.
Impurity analysis plays an important role to guarantee the quality and safety of pharmaceuticals. However, identification of impurities remains challenging, especially for those unknown or at trace levels. We present an integrated approach to detect and characterize the trace impurities in drugs.
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By an agar dilution method, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of antral sinus puncture isolates were studied. Pneumococci were generally susceptible to amoxicillin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin, but 17% of pneumococcal isolates were resistant to cefuroxime. Haemophilus influenzae isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and clarithromycin. beta-Lactamase production occurred in 69% of Prevotella species. One-third of Peptostreptococcus magnus isolates were resistant to azithromycin and clarithromycin. Cefuroxime had limited activity against Prevotella species and P. magnus. Levofloxacin was active against most isolates except peptostreptococci. Amoxicillin-clavulanate was active against all isolates, with the MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited being < or = 1 microgram/ml.
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Limited evidence suggests there may be a link between fluoroquinolone use and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), but such an association remains unclear due to conflicting data.
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Mutations in the QRDR of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes of 138 isolates of S epidermidis recovered from the human conjunctival flora were analysed. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of four fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and tosufloxacin) against these isolates were also determined using agar dilution methods.