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In this study we have evaluated the effect of fluoroquinolones on viral DNA replication using the DNA tumour virus Simian virus 40 (SV40) as our model. Four different fluoroquinolones, namely, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, were tested for their ability to inhibit viral DNA replication.
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Case patients received a diagnosis of infection due to A. baumannii isolates with a unique pattern of drug resistance (ie, susceptible to imipenem, variably susceptible to aminoglycosides, and resistant to all other antibiotics) between December 1, 2004, and August 31, 2005. Case patients were matched 1 : 1 with concurrently hospitalized control patients. Isolates' genetic relatedness was established by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
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Moxifloxacin monotherapy, 400 mg once daily for 14 days, is an effective and well-tolerated oral treatment for women with uPID.
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Herein we report the case of hepatic amoebic abscesses in an HIV-positive Italian seaman with a history of promiscuous heterosexual intercourse. In October 2004, the patient was hospitalized because of fever and recurring abdominal pain. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed six hepatic hypoechoid oval lesions with hyperechoid margins. Stool samples were negative for parasites and bacteria, and serology for Entamoeba histolytica was also negative. Therapy with meropenem plus levofloxacin was initiated. After a partial resolution of clinical symptoms and reduction of three hepatic lesions, the patient was again hospitalized in December 2004, because of recurring intense pain at the right hypochondrium and fever. At this time, one hepatic lesion at the sixth segment was enlarged, two lesions were unchanged, and the remaining three smaller abscesses were resolved. Serum antibodies for E. histolytica and amoebic antigens on the largest abscess drainage were positive; moreover, E. histolytica was also identified on drainage fluid with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Therapy with metronidazole followed by paromomycin improved both symptoms and radiographic images. This case report suggests that in HIV-infected patients, invasive amoebiasis should be considered and atypical aspects, such as multiple hepatic lesions, delayed positivity of serology for E. histolytica, and possible bacterial superinfection should be evaluated.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of community-acquired and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia. The development of resistance of P. aeruginosa to antibiotics is increasing globally due to the overuse of antibiotics. This article examines, retrospectively, the antibiotic resistance in patients with community-acquired versus nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa or multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa.
To compare two methods of measuring DNA damage induced by photogenotoxicity of fluoroquinolones (FQ).
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Bacterial infections are well described complications of cirrhosis that greatly increase mortality rates. Two factors play important roles in the development of bacterial infections in these patients: the severity of liver disease and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The most common infections are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, urinary tract infections, pneumonia and sepsis. Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are equal causative organisms. For primary prophylaxis, short-term antibiotic treatment (oral norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin) is indicated in cirrhotic patients (with or without ascites) admitted with gastrointestinal haemorrhage (variceal or non-variceal). Administration of norfloxacin is advisable for hospitalized patients with low ascitic protein even without gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The first choice in empirical treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is the iv. III. generation cephalosporin; which can be switched for a targeted antibiotic regime based on the result of the culture. The duration of therapy is 5-8 days. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and fluoroquinolones--patients not on prior quinolone prophylaxis--were shown to be as effective and safe as cefotaxime. In patients with evidence of improvement, iv. antibiotics can be switched safely to oral antibiotics after 2 days. In case of renal dysfunction, iv albumin should also be administered. Long-term antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended in patients who have recovered from an episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (secondary prevention). For "selective intestinal decontamination", poorly absorbed oral norfloxacin is the preferred schedule. Oral ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin (added gram positive spectrum) all the more are reasonable alternatives. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is only for patients who are intolerant to quinolones. Prophylaxis is indefinite until disappearance of ascites, transplant or death. Long-term prophylaxis is currently not recommended for patients without previous spontaneous bacterial peritonitis episode, not even when refractory ascites or low ascites protein content is present.
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Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) is the drug-of-choice in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia caused infections. There has been an increase in resistance to SXT of S. maltophilia over recent years. In this study 30 S. maltophilia clinical isolates resistant to SXT were investigated. Antibiotic susceptibilities for ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, doxycycline, tigecycline, ceftazidime, colistin and chloramphenicol were determined by broth microdilution method. None of the strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, tigecycline, ceftazidime or colistin. Only 37% of the isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin or moxifloxacin. Two isolates resistant to all tested antibiotic agents and two others susceptible only to doxycycline were further investigated: susceptibility for combinations of antibiotics was analyzed by checkerboard technique. According to the fractional inhibitory concentration indices calculated, moxifloxacin plus ceftazidime combination was found to be synergistic in each case. Genetic testing revealed the predominance of sul1 gene. Our study concluded that the range of effective antibiotic agents is even more limited in infections caused by SXT-resistant S. maltophilia. In these cases, in vitro synergistic antibiotic combinations could be potential therapeutic options.
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Increasing multidrug resistance in nosocomial Enterococcus strains from all over the world recently enhances the need for further investigation of enterococci, especially their virulence factors. There are still many lacking parts about virulence factors of clinical enterococcus isolates. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance and the presence of potential virulence factors of 91 Enterococcus strains (59 E.faecalis, 31 E.faecium and 1 E.gallinarum) isolated from urine cultures of inpatients between January 2008-June 2010 in our hospital and also to evaluate whether a correlation existed between antibiotic resistance and potential virulence factors. The genes which encoded virulence factors of enterococci; aggregation substance (AS), enterococcal surface protein (ESP) and hyaluronidase (HYL) (asa1, esp, hyl respectively) were studied by molecular methods and haemolysin production and gelatinase activity were studied by phenotypic methods. Vancomycin resistant strains were checked for the presence of vanA and vanB genes. Eight (25.8%) E.faecium isolates were found glycopeptide resistant. In seven of these isolates resistance type was vanA and in one it was neither vanA nor vanB. High-level gentamicin and high-level streptomycin resistance rates were 74.2% and 61.3% in E.faecium strains and were 22% ve 27.1% in E.faecalis strains, respectively. Beta-lactamase production and linezolid resistance were not detected in any of the strains. E.faecium isolates were more resistant (p< 0.001-0.013) than E.faecalis isolates to all tested antibiotics except tetracycline, minocycline, doxycycline and streptogramin (p< 0.001). hyl gene positivity (p< 0.001) was found higher in E.faecium isolates whereas esp (p= 0.003) and asa1 (p< 0.001) gene positivity, haemolysin production (p=0.014) and gelatinase activity (p= 0.029) were higher in E.faecalis isolates. AS and ESP were the most frequent virulence factors, with the rates of 26.7% and 25.6%, respectively. There were 32 (35.6%) strains without any of the investigated virulence factors. We have also detected that asa1 gene positive E.faecalis isolates were more resistant to ciprofloxacin (p= 0.001), norfloxacin (p= 0.006) and levofloxacin (p= 0.001) than asa1 gene negative isolates; esp gene positive E.faecalis isolates were more resistant to doxycycline (p= 0.043) than esp gene negative isolates and hyl gene positive E.faecium isolates were more resistant to nitrofurantoine (p= 0.011) than hyl gene negative isolates. This was the first clinical sample originated study, investigating the corelation between antibiotic resistance and virulence factors in urinary Enterococcus isolates in Turkey.
Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is the most common bacterial agent of sexually transmitted infections around the world, but susceptibility testing of this pathogen is rarely pursued due to its intracellular niche. The principal aims of this research were to determine in vitro sensitivity profile of urogenital chlamydial strains isolated from Croatian patients and to compare obtained concentration values of different antimicrobial drugs mutually and with the literature.