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A cross- sectional study was carried out between September 2013 and April 2014. Biopsy specimens were obtained from patients scheduled for an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and were sent to the French National Reference Center for Campylobacters and Helicobacters where they were tested by molecular methods for detection of H. pylori and clarithromycin resistance by real-time PCR using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-melting curve analysis (FRET-MCA) protocol, for detection of tetracycline resistance by real-time PCR on 16S rRNA genes (rrnA and rrnB), for detection of point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of H. pylori gyrA gene, associated with resistance to quinolones, by PCR and sequencing.
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As part of the multicentre Antibiotic Therapy Optimisation Study, MIC values of 19 non-β-lactam agents were determined for third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Enterobacter species (3GCREB) isolates collected in German hospitals.
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Glycopeptides are often used for persistent fever in neutropenic patients. This study compares efficacy and toxicity of teicoplanin and vancomycin.
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The in vitro antimicrobial activities of five compounds isolated from lichens, collected in several Southern regions of Chile (including the Chilean Antarctic Territory), were evaluated alone and in combination with five therapeutically available antibiotics, using checkerboard microdilution assay against methicillin-resistant clinical isolates strains of Staphylococcus aureus. MIC90, MIC50, as well as MBC90 and MBC50, for the lichen compounds were evaluated. The MIC90 was ranging from 32 µg/ml for perlatolic acid to 128 µg/ml for α-collatolic acid. MBC90 was ranging from onefold up to twofold the MIC90 for each compound. A synergistic action was observed in combination with gentamicin, whilst antagonism was observed for some lichen compounds in combination with levofloxacin. All combinations with erythromycin were indifferent, whilst variability was observed for clindamycin and oxacillin combinations. Data from checkerboard assay were analysed and interpreted using the fractional inhibitory concentration index and the response surface approach using the ΔE model. Discrepancies were found between both methods for some combinations. These could mainly be explained by the failure of FIC approach, being too much subjective and sensitive to experimental errors. These findings suggest, however, that the natural compounds from lichens are good candidates for the individuation of novel templates for the development of new antimicrobial agents or combinations of drugs for chemotherapy.
A 5-year-old spayed female diabetic mixed-breed dog underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation to correct bilateral hypermature cataracts. Two months postsurgery, the patient presented with ulcerative keratitis and multifocal stromal abscessation OD, which was controlled, but never resolved, with topical fluoroquinolone therapy. The patient re-presented 2 months later with a new, raised, white gritty corneal opacity associated with hyperemia, chemosis, and blepharospasm OD. Cytology of the right cornea revealed filamentous bacteria, suggestive of Actinomyces spp. Actinomyces bowdenii was subsequently isolated in pure culture and identified via 16s rDNA sequencing. Actinomyces bowdenii has never before been described as a cause of ocular infection. An immunosuppressed corneal environment likely contributed to this opportunistic Actinomycosis. The infection was not controlled with fluoroquinolone therapy, and the isolate, in vitro, was resistant to three fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and levofloxacin), which also has not been previously reported for this species of Actinomyces. A superficial keratectomy with conjunctival graft was employed to successfully manage the infection.
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GSK1322322 is a novel peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitor being developed for the intravenous and oral treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia. The activity of GSK1322322 was tested against a global collection of clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae (n = 2,370), Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 115), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 947), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 617), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 940), including strains resistant to one or more marketed antibiotics. GSK1322322 had an MIC(90) of 1 μg/ml against M. catarrhalis and 4 μg/ml against H. influenzae, with 88.8% of β-lactamase-positive strains showing growth inhibition at that concentration. All S. pneumoniae strains were inhibited by ≤ 4 μg/ml of GSK1322322, with an MIC(90) of 2 μg/ml. Pre-existing resistance mechanisms did not affect its potency, as evidenced by the MIC(90) of 1 μg/ml for penicillin, levofloxacin, and macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae. GSK1322322 was very potent against S. pyogenes strains, with an MIC(90) of 0.5 μg/ml, irrespective of their macrolide resistance phenotype. This PDF inhibitor was also active against S. aureus strains regardless of their susceptibility to methicillin, macrolides, or levofloxacin, with an MIC(90) of 4 μg/ml in all cases. Time-kill studies showed that GSK1322322 had bactericidal activity against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. pyogenes, and S. aureus, demonstrating a ≥ 3-log(10) decrease in the number of CFU/ml at 4× MIC within 24 h in 29 of the 33 strains tested. Given the antibacterial potency demonstrated against this panel of organisms, GSK1322322 represents a valuable alternative therapy for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by drug-resistant pathogens.
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Limited prospective data are available for elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin versus that of levofloxacin for the treatment of CAP in hospitalized elderly patients (age, > or = 65 years).
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The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from different provinces of Korea and to analyze their antimicrobial susceptibility. Altogether, 2,287 BTM samples were investigated. Among them, Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from 176 BTM samples. Out of 176 Acinetobacter spp., 57 isolates were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii. None of the isolates were resistant to cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, or colistin. Resistance to amikacin, gentamicin, piperacillin, and cefotaxime was 2.3, 7.4, 2.3, and 4.0%, respectively. Acinetobacter spp. were least susceptible to tetracycline (17.6%), followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (15.9%), ceftazidime (10.8%), and ampicillin-sulbactam (10.2%). Overall, A. baumannii strains were susceptible to most of the antimicrobial agents tested compared with other Acinetobacter spp. The Acinetobacter isolates showed 17 different patterns of antimicrobial resistance. The most frequent resistance profile observed was ampicillin-sulbactam (n=13), followed by tetracycline (n=9), ceftazidime-tetracycline (n=8), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (n=8). The results of this study confirmed that Acinetobacter, including A. baumannii strains, are present in BTM, which clearly showed the importance of examining BTM not only for foodborne pathogens but also for Acinetobacter spp., which could be of public health concern. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Acinetobacter spp. in BTM samples from Korea.
To report bilateral Acanthamoeba keratitis after wearing an overnight reverse geometric contact lens for 5 days.
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The development of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery often results in significant vision loss. Inhibition of bacterial proliferation in the anterior chamber using antibiotic eye drops is important to prevent endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. We aimed to determine the sensitivity of fluoroquinolones against Enterococcus faecalis ocular isolates and the efficacy of fluoroquinolones to prevent E. faecalis-induced endophthalmitis in aphakic rabbits.
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Equal topical administration of levofloxacin yielded 2.5 times higher vitreal concentration than ofloxacin. The mean vitreous concentrations of ofloxacin and levofloxacin were 5.30+/-3.04 (SD) ng/ml and 13.09+/-5.24 ng/ml, respectively (P=0.002).