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Lung microdialysis has been used with rats to investigate antibiotic distribution after single-dose administration. However, conducting such experiments after intravenous infusion at steady state would constitute a more convenient alternative, which was evaluated here, using levofloxacin (LVX) as a test compound. Microdialysis probes were inserted in blood and muscle, used as a comparator, between 9:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m. Intravenous LVX infusion was started 6 h later and maintained until the end of the experiment at a rate of 1.0 mg.h(-1). Lung microdialysis probes were inserted on the morning of the next day. Rats were kept anesthetized during dialysate collection. In vivo probe recoveries were estimated by retrodialysis using a calibrator method, with ciprofloxacin (CIP) as the calibrator. LVX and CIP were analyzed in dialysates by high-performance liquid chromatography. The steady-state tissue-to-blood unbound-drug concentration ratios were 1.00 +/- 0.15 in muscle tissues and 1.06 +/- 0.40 in lungs, suggesting passive distribution of LVX in tissue. Although providing no information on rate of distribution, microdialysis investigations following drug infusion at steady state appear to be an interesting approach for characterization of antibiotic distribution in rat lungs.
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Hospitals should measure antimicrobial use based on the WHO's recommended metric, the defined daily dose (DDD). There is no data on antimicrobial usage based on DDD in Saudi Arabia. Thus, this study evaluates the trend in antimicrobial consumption based on this concept.
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Psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk are most well known for their spoilage potential and cause significant economic losses in the dairy industry. Despite their ability to produce several exoenzyme types at low temperatures, psychrotrophs that dominate the microflora at the time of spoilage are generally considered benign bacteria. It was recently reported that raw milk-spoiling Gram-negative-psychrotrophs frequently carried antibiotic resistance (AR) features. The present study evaluated AR to four antibiotics (ABs) (gentamicin, ceftazidime, levofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) in mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacterial populations recovered from 18 raw milk samples, after four days storage at 4°C or 6°C. Robust analysis of variance and non parametric statistics (e.g., REGW and NPS) revealed that AR prevalence among psychrotrophs, for milk samples stored at 4°C, often equalled the initial levels and equalled or increased during the cold storage at 6°C, depending on the AB. The study performed at 4°C with an intermediate sampling point at day 2 suggested that (1) different psychrotrophic communities with varying AR levels dominate over time and (2) that AR (determined from relative amounts) was most prevalent, transiently, after 2-day storage in psychrotrophic or mesophilic populations, most importantly at a stage where total counts were below or around 10(5) CFU/mL, at levels at which the milk is acceptable for industrial dairy industrial processes.
Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial involving 154 patients who received a living or deceased donor kidney-only transplant in 7 Canadian transplant centers between December 2011 and June 2013.
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PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched.
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The drugs used in this experiment cover common drugs for treating Brucella. Meanwhile, the results are consistent with clinical efficacy. It is suggested personalized regimen according to patients' status in treatment of Brucella.
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Only a few studies have evaluated Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to linezolid. The aim of the present study was to assess linezolid susceptibility in H. pylori, including strains with double/multidrug resistance. The susceptibility of 53 H. pylori strains was evaluated by Etest and a breakpoint susceptibility testing method. Helicobacter pylori resistance rates were as follows: amoxicillin, 1.9%; metronidazole, 37.7%; clarithromycin, 17.0%; tetracycline, 1.9%; levofloxacin, 24.5%; and linezolid (>4 mg/L), 39.6%. The linezolid MIC50 value was 31.2-fold higher than that of clarithromycin and 10.5-fold higher than that of levofloxacin; however, 4 of 11 strains with double/multidrug resistance were linezolid-susceptible. The MIC range of the oxazolidinone agent was larger (0.125-64 mg/L) compared with those in the previous two reports. The linezolid resistance rate was 2.2-fold higher in metronidazole-resistant strains and in strains resistant to at least one antibiotic compared with the remaining strains. Briefly, linezolid was less active against H. pylori compared with clarithromycin and levofloxacin, and linezolid resistance was linked to resistance to metronidazole as well as to resistance to at least one antibiotic. However, linezolid activity against some strains with double/multidrug resistance may render the agent appropriate to treat some associated H. pylori infections following in vitro susceptibility testing of the strains. Clinical trials are required to confirm this suggestion.
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Sixty-six strains of IR-GNB were isolated from the sputum of CWP-COPD patients with LRTI, and the bacterial spectrum was investigated. The drug resistance of bacterial strains was studied by KB disk diffusion method.
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Our results indicate the potential virulence of commensal GBS isolates, reinforcing the need for continued screening for this bacterium to prevent infections. The distribution of capsular and pili antigens, and MLVA profiles was also identified, which may contribute to the development of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of GBS infection.