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Newer fluoroquinolones have good activity against Streptococcus pneunoniae and may be useful clinically for the treatment of pneumonia. Although resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae has been reported, it is rare. The frequency of single-step resistance and the emergence of resistance were compared in serial transfer of 49 clinical isolates of penicillin-sensitive and -resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin, grepafloxacin, and gemifloxacin. Single-step resistance frequencies to four times the minimum inhibitory concentration were 2.73 x 10(-6) (+/- 8.46 x 10(-6)) for ciprofloxacin, 1.78 x 10(-7) (+/- 4.62 x 10(-7)) for trovafloxacin, 5.45 x 10(-7) (+/- 1.24 x 10(-6)) for grepafloxacin, 6.78 x 10(-7) (+/- 1.38 x 10(-6)) for gemifloxacin, and 9.23 x 10(-8) (+/- 4.47 x 10(-7)) for levofloxacin. In serial transfer experiments, all isolates became resistant to clinically relevant levels of all fluoroquinolones after eight passages. The resistance occurred most rapidly with ciprofloxacin followed by grepafloxacin, gemifloxacin, trovafloxacin, and levofloxacin. These results show that strains with decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones occur frequently in cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and this organism can readily become resistant to clinically relevant concentrations of fluoroquinolones in vitro.
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Among the 66 strains of IR-GNB, 29 (43.9%) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 17 (25.8%) were Acinetobacter baumannii, and 11 (16.7%) were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The drug sensitivity test showed that all bacteria had high drug resistance; Pseudomonas aeruginosa had a susceptibility rate higher than 50% to ciprofloxacin, polymyxin B, fosfomycin, and amikacin, Acinetobacter baumannii had a susceptibility rate higher than 55% to fosfomycin, polymyxin B, and cefoperazone/sulbactam, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia had a susceptibility rate higher than 50% to cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, levofloxacin, polymyxin B, and cefoperazone/sulbactam, and Pseudomonas cepacia had a susceptibility rate higher than 50% to piperacillin/tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and polymyxin B.
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Overall, only imipenem and amikacin exceeded 90% susceptibility when all Gram-negative pathogens were combined, and ertapenem, cefepime, ceftazidime, piperacillin-tazobactam, and levofloxacin reached at least 85%. However, resistance, ESBL-positive, and multidrug-resistance (MDR) rates were substantially higher in isolates from patients with hospital-associated IAI than from those with community-associated IAI (eg, 14.1% vs 5.1% MDR isolates, respectively, among all Gram-negative pathogens), higher in isolates from intensive care units than in those from general wards, and higher in isolates from infants than in those from children ≥1 year of age. In addition, MDR rates varied markedly within Europe.
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In all topical fluoroquinolones, the metabolic activity of the corneal epithelial cells decreased in a time-dependent fashion and the LDH titer increased with longer exposure times. Especially, the LDH titers significantly increased after exposure to moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3% compared with controls. The migration rates of the corneal epithelial cells were faster in ofloxacin 0.3% or levofloxacin 0.5% than other fluoroquinolones. Severe cellular morphological damage was observed after exposure to moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3%.
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The H. pylori strains from the adolescents in Zhejiang showed a high resistance to metronidazole and amoxicillin but a low resistance to clarithromycin and fruranzolidone. All of H. pylori strains were susceptive to gentamicin and levofloxacin.
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The corneal defect was treated with a bandage contact lens, levofloxacin, and hyaluronic acid eye drops. Ten days after detachment, UCVA had improved to 20/20 and the epithelium had closed completely.
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H. pylori eradication rates and the rate of ulcer recurrence were similar between the STT and LBT. The LBT is a more economical option compared to STT.
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are attracted to sites of infection. They have the potential to deliver antimicrobial agents to these sites if the agents enter the cells and do not alter migration. Penicillin G did not enter cells and was not transported by PMN. We found that azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and telithromycin were concentrated in PMN and transported toward a chemoattractant. These antimicrobial agents were released from the PMN and inhibited the growth of bacteria on test plates.
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The subjects were 242 patients with ocular infections or traumas treated in our hospital including outpatients, inpatients, and emergency room patients. Most of them needed urgent care presenting with eye complaints, traumas, or decreased vision. Clinical samples were obtained from discharges, corneal, conjunctival tissues or vitreous fluid or aqueous humor, and cultured. Items for assessment included the patient's age, the diagnosis, the prevalence of isolated bacteria, and the results of susceptibility tests for levofloxacin (LVFX) cefamezin (CEZ), gentamicin (GM) and vancomycin. This information was obtained from the patients' medical records.