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Out of 133 patients who had received second-line therapy after failure of first-line PPI/AC therapy, we selected, for review, patients who took the prescribed drugs for first-line therapy equal to, or more than 80%. As a result, data on 114 patients (83 males and 31 females; mean age 49.1 +/- 13.0 years; peptic ulcer n = 89; non-ulcer dyspepsia, n = 25) were eligible for evaluation. They had either repeated the PPI/AC regimen (n = 34; 5-14 days), or had been administered the PPI/AM regimen (n = 80; 10 days). The cure rates of the two regimens were compared.
The therapeutic efficacy of the benzoxazinorifamycin KRM-1648 was studied in an experimental rabbit infection system with avian Mycobacterium avium. The infected rabbits died from Yersin type infections, a peculiar type of experimental bovine tuberculosis characterized by a very rapid course, enlargement of the spleen and liver, and septic infection, 14 to 20 days after bacterial challenge, as evidenced by bacteremia and severe bacterial loads in the visceral organs. Histopathologic studies of the visceral organs of the infected rabbits revealed the development of numerous typical granulomatous lesions. This experimental rabbit infection system, features of which resemble certain features of disseminated M. avium complex infections in AIDS patients, was used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of KRM-1648, a newly synthesized benzoxazinorifamycin. KRM-1648 given orally at 25 and 50 mg/kg of body weight reduced the incidence and degree of bacteremia in infected rabbits and protected against subsequent death. Moreover, the drug allowed almost complete recovery of infected rabbits by week 7. KRM-1648 cleared infections in the lungs, liver, spleen, and kidneys and restored histopathologic features of healthy tissue in the visceral organs. KRM-1648 exhibited a more potent therapeutic effect against M. avium infection than rifampin and clarithromycin.
We aimed to assess the resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin and metronidazole, in patients with and without previous eradication treatment, in a geographic area from the north of Spain. We also analyzed the evolution of resistance rates and its relationships with annual antibiotic consumption.
Of 12,530 participants attending the study at baseline, 11,065 (88%) were traced and contacted at the 5-yr follow-up. The response rate was 94%. At baseline, 17.5% in the screened group were H. pylori-positive. The absolute reduction in dyspepsia during the first year was 4% in the screened group, whereas no change was observed in the unscreened group; this rate remained constant during the next 4 yr. Quality of life did not change. A small effect was found for dyspepsia-related consultations and sick leave days, but not on the prescription rate of ulcer drugs. A 33% lower ulcer incidence (107 ulcers vs 148 ulcers) was seen in the screened group compared to the unscreened group.
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The Taiwan Government issued a policy to restrict antimicrobial usage since 2001. We aimed to assess the changes in the antibiotic consumption and the primary resistance of H. pylori after this policy and the impact of virulence factors on resistance.
We performed a prospective noninferiority multicenter trial in which 343 consecutive individuals with H pylori infection were assigned randomly to groups given hybrid therapy (40 mg omeprazole and 1 g amoxicillin, twice daily for 14 days; 500 mg clarithromycin and 500 mg nitroimidazole were added, twice daily for the final 7 days) or concomitant therapy (same 4 drugs taken concurrently, twice daily for 14 days). We assessed bacterial resistance to these drugs in a subset of patients using the E-test. Efficacy, side effects, and compliance were determined.
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After 1 year of follow-up, macroscopic appearance was significantly different in group B (P=.023), and chronic inflammation, H Pylori density, and activity were significantly higher in group B than in group A (P=.022, .007, and .002, respectively); however, we did not find a significant difference in the symptoms comparing both groups (P=.287). After 1 year of follow-up, we observed the persistence of the H pylori infection in all children who had not received eradication treatment.
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A total of 213 patients met the entry criteria and were treated with a nonpseudomonal third-generation cephalosporin with (116 patients) or without (97 patients) a macrolide. The mean (+/- SD) age of the patients was 62.2+/-19.6 years; 47% were male. The most common comorbid conditions were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Of the 116 patients who received a macrolide, the majority (66%) received erythromycin. Other macrolides used were clarithromycin (19%) and oral azithromycin (15%). There were no statistical differences between patients who did and did not receive a macrolide in terms of comorbid illnesses, length of hospital stay (5.2+/-2.8 vs 5.2+/-3.4 days, respectively), length of intravenous antibiotic therapy (4.4+/-2.5 vs 4.1+/-2.3 days, respectively), or mortality (0.9% vs 3.1%, respectively; P = 0.333). The only difference between the groups was in age. Those patients who received a macrolide were significantly younger than those who received only a nonpseudomonal third-generation cephalosporin (57.4+/-19.2 years vs 67.9+/-18.5 years; P < 0.001). However, when age and severity of illness were taken into account, no difference existed between the patients who received a nonpseudomonal third-generation cephalosporin alone or in combination with a macrolide.
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Tissue cultures for acid-fast bacilli were positive. PCR-RFLP analysis and sequencing of hsp65 and 16S rDNA genes confirmed the isolated organisms to be M. marinum. Systemic therapy with rifampicin, clarithromycin, and amikacin empirically over 6 months led to complete resolution of skin lesions leaving only some residual scars.
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One-hundred and fifty patients received each treatment. Groups were comparable in terms of demographic variables. Eight percent of the patients did not return for follow-up. Compliance (98%) and side effects (only mild to moderate) in the two groups were comparable. Per-protocol cure rates were 83.5% (E20-7d), 84.8% (E40-7d), and 88.2% (E40-10d). Intention-to-treat cure rates were, respectively, 74%, 78%, and 80% (nonstatistically significant differences).
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Clarithromycin suppressed IL-13-induced periostin production in human lung fibroblasts, in part by inhibiting STAT6 phosphorylation. This suggests a novel mechanism of the immunomodulatory effect of clarithromycin in asthmatic airway inflammation and fibrosis.
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All children with antral nodularity and/or an elevated anti-H. pylori IgG titer underwent antral biopsies for histology, urease test and culture while undergoing an upper endoscopy for routine indications. All positive cultures were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by E-test for clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline and metronidazole.