We randomly assigned 229 patients with AIDS and M. avium complex bacteremia to receive either rifampin (600 mg daily), ethambutol (approximately 15 mg per kilogram of body weight daily), clofazimine (100 mg daily), and ciprofloxacin (750 mg twice daily) (the four-drug group) or rifabutin (600 mg daily), ethambutol (as above), and clarithromycin (1000 mg twice daily) (the three-drug group). In the three-drug group the dose of rifabutin was reduced by half after 125 patients were randomized, because 24 of 63 patients had uveitis.
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To investigate matrix-specifity of probiotic effects and particularly of the reduction of antibiotics-associated diarrhea, a controlled, randomized, double-blind study was performed, in which 88 Helicobacter pylori-infected but otherwise healthy subjects were given for eight weeks either a) a probiotic fruit yoghurt "mild" containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 plus Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, n = 30), b) the same product but pasteurized after fermentation (n = 29) or c) milk acidified with lactic acid (control, n = 29). During week five, a Helicobacter eradication therapy was performed. Helicobacter activity was measured via 13C-2-urea breath tests and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal complaints were recorded by validated questionnaires. In intervention group a, b and c the mean number of days with diarrhoea was 4, 10 and 10 (P<0·05), the frequency of episodes 17%, 7% and 27% (n.s.), and the change in total symptoms score before antibiotics treatment was -1·4 ± 1·1, -1·2 ± 1·1, 2·6 ± 1·1 points/four weeks (P<0·05). All milk products decreased Helicobacter activity by 18 to 45% without significant differences between groups. The observed decrease in Hel. pylori activity seems to be not or not only due to probiotic bacteria but (rather) to components of acidified milk (most probably lactic acid). Fruit-yogurt-like fermented milk products with living probiotic bacteria significantly shorten the duration of antibiotics-associated diarrhoea and improve gastrointestinal complaints. Fruit yogurt-like fermented milk is a matrix suitable for probiotic bacteria.
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The new stool antigen test using monoclonal antibody is useful for the diagnosis of H. pylori eradication 4 weeks after the end of treatment.
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A 56-year-old Asian female patient with a history of receiving multiple facial cosmetic procedures over the preceding 2 years was admitted to our institution with swelling, local pain, and erythema on the right cheek. Mycobacteirum fortuitum complex isolated from a pus culture was identified as M. wolinskyi by rpoB sequencing. Metallic foreign bodies and abscess were detected by radiologic imaging. The pus was incised and drained. Treatment comprised clarithromycin (500 mg every 12 h), amikacin (200 mg every 8 h), and ciprofloxacin (400 mg every 6 h).
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One hundred and fourty-four patients (M/F = 81/63) were enrolled (mean age 48.1 years, range 12-78). Eradication of H. pylori was significantly different between patients who were initially treated with this regimen (90/94, 96%) and patients who had previously failed to eradicate H. pylori with standard triple therapy (27/50, 54%). Moreover, the eradication rate was significantly decreased in patients with more than one previous failure (9/22, 41%) compared to that in patients with only one failure (18/29, 62%). No other differences such as age, gastric pathology, ethnic origin, smoking habits, or pre-treatment urease activity were found to influence the eradication rate.
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The study has shown that the creatinine-based niosomes developed in our laboratory were biocompatible, safe and increased the oral bioavailability of the model hydrophobic Clarithromycin using experimental animals.
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Helicobacter pylori is associated with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer in adults and in children. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the association of recurrent abdominal pain and H. pylori infection in children and to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment in patients with evidence of infection.
Polymorphism of MDR1 is one of the determinants of successful eradication of H. pylori by the triple therapy with lansoprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin, together with CYP2C19 genotype and bacterial susceptibility to clarithromycin.