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The occurrence of bacterial strains resistant to different antimicrobials is a growing problem in Latin American countries. The aim was to measure the antimicrobial susceptibility of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prophyromona gingivalis, isolated from chronic periodontitis patients. Twenty-five patients diagnosed with generalized- moderate or advanced- chronic periodontitis were consecutively recruited from patients attending the Periodontal Specialist Program, Javeriana University, according to specific criteria, including no recent antibiotic consumption. All patients filled out a questionnaire on antibiotic intake. The deepest periodontal pocket in each quadrant was sampled. Pooled samples were mixed, diluted and plated on enriched brucella agar plates. After anaerobic incubation, identification of the target bacteria was performed, based on colony morphology, gram staining, aerotolerance and biochemical reactions (RapID Ana II, Remel, U.S.A.). Following identification, the bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial testing, using amoxicillin, tetracycline, doxycicline, azithromycin and metronidazole (E-test, AbBiodisk, Sweden). The minimal inhibitory concentrations obtained were compared with a reference standard to determine antimicrobial resistance. Amoxicillin-resistant species were tested for beta-lactamase production. Forty-four percent of the patients used antibiotics without any medical prescription, 40% used antibiotics at least once a year. The presence of eleven species was confirmed after a series of biochemical tests: four Fusobacterium nucleatum, five Prevotella intermedia and two Prophyromona gingivalis. All strains were resistant to metronidazole, five were resistant to tetracycline and azithromicin, and two strains were resistant to doxycicline and amoxicillin. The strains resistant to amoxicillin were positive for beta-lactamase production, Antimicrobial resistance, particularly against metronidazole, was a common phenomenon for the bacterial isolates analyzed in this Colombian sample.
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A 1-day antibiotic regimen of oral ciprofloxacin and metronidazole is as effective as a 5-day regimenin the prevention of infective complications following transrectalprostate biopsy.
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) cure rates vary in different geographical regions because of differences in hosts as well as in H. pylori strains. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of different treatment regimens for eradication of H. pylori infection in children, in order to select a treatment regimen that is most effective with the least adverse effects and cost.
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The aim of this double-blind, parallel study was to evaluate the adjunctive effects of systemically administered amoxicillin and metronidazole in a group of adult periodontitis patients who also received supra- and subgingival debridement.
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A total 120 women were enrolled in the study, of which 114 completed the study. The treatment arms were comparable. The cure rate with low-dose tinidazole was significantly more compared to metronidazole at 4(th) week (P = 0.0013), but not at 1(st) week (P = 0.242). The adverse drug reactions were less with tinidazole compared to metronidazole.
This paper is the third in a series on the prescribing of medicines for children by dentists working in primary care. It deals with antibiotics, which may be prescribed for infections arising from teeth, and reviews current best practice.
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The multifactorial etiology of bacterial vaginosis (BV) impedes development of effective treatment and prevention strategies. Herein, we evaluated the effects of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), a suspected BV risk factor, on vaginal flora composition.
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To evaluate the evidence for the use of tigecycline in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).
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Metronidazole, a synthetic derivative of tile nitroimidazole class, is a known antibacterial and antiprotozoal agent. Following an anecdotal observation of hypolipidemic effect of metronidazole, a randomized open trial of 250 mg three times daily was conducted in 30 subjects. This open label crossover trial was performed in three stages-14 days each-as challenge, wash out and re-challenge on 30 subjects, including six male and 24 female in the age limits of 40 to 73 years (mean 58.7+/-10.6 years). Results of this trial revealed that metronidazole 750 mg daily in divided doses for 14 days decreased the average of total blood cholesterol in 30 cases by 46+/-27 mg/dl (14.6%, P=0.025) and LDL cholesterol by 39+/-28 mg/dl (22%, P=0.005). Decrease in total and LDL cholesterol and increase in HDL cholesterol by 3.8+/-4.1 mg/dl also accompanied fall of triglyceride level cases by 68+/-13 mg/dl. This study suggests that metronidazole or its derivatives may form a new class of lipid lowering compounds.
The results of this study failed to show any advantage which was associated with the routine postoperative use of antibiotics in asymptomatic third molar surgeries.
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Resistance to antibiotics is considered the main reason for failure to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (HP). Resistance rates are different in developed and developing countries and are not known for Israel. We studied HP resistance rates in 40 patients who underwent esophagoduodenoscopy for various indications and were found to have gastric HP colonies. Sensitivity was determined by E-test, using clarythromycin, amoxycillin, clindamycin, erythromycin and metronidazole. The resistance rate for metronidazole was up to 67% but that for clindamycin was only 10%. HP was very sensitive to both macrolide antibiotics, erythromycin and clarythromycin.