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The efficacy of a new pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation of amoxycillin/clavulanate (AMX/CA) 2000/125 mg, twice daily, designed to provide adequate levels of amoxycillin over the 12-h dosing interval to eradicate penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) with amoxycillin (+/-clavulanic acid) MICs of =4 mg/l, was evaluated in patients with respiratory infections caused by S. pneumoniae, including PRSP (penicillin MICs 2-16 mg/l). Data from nine clinical studies were combined (total intent-to-treat N=5531). Six randomized, double-blind studies used levofloxacin 500 mg od in acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS), levofloxacin 500 mg od in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB), clarithromycin 500 mg bid in AECB, AMX/CA 875/125 mg bid and tid in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and AMX/CA 1000/125 mg tid in CAP as comparators. The three remaining studies (two in ABS and one in CAP) were non-comparative. In the AMX/CA 2000/125 mg bid-treated patients evaluable at follow-up (Day 14-39), outcome was successful in 60/64 (93.7%) patients with S. pneumoniae infections in the comparative studies and 348/363 (95.9%) in the non-comparative studies, including 95.6% of all patients and 95.2% of patients whose isolates had AMX/CA MICs of >/=4 mg/l. In the pooled comparator group, the success rate at follow-up was 86.5% (45/52). For PRSP (AMX/CA MICs of 0.5-8 mg/l), the overall success rate was 98.2% (55/56) at follow-up for AMX/CA 2000/125 mg and 50.0% (2/4) for comparators. AMX/CA 2000/125 mg shows efficacy comparable to that of the comparators evaluated against S. pneumoniae infections. Due to its favorable pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile and promising clinical success, the new AMX/CA 2000/125 mg formulation should be considered for the empirical treatment of respiratory tract infections in regions with a high prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant S. pneumoniae and in patients at high risk of antimicrobial-resistant S. pneumoniae infection as this formulation covers many PRSP that are non-susceptible to amoxycillin (+/-clavulanic acid) (MICs of >/=4 mg/l) as well as common beta-lactamase-producing respiratory pathogens.
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Randomized prospective clinical trial. Animals-48 cats with URTD.
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The in vitro activity of a novel oxazolidinone, linezolid, was studied by comparing the activity of linezolid with those of amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid against 25 strains of Nocardia brasiliensis isolated from patients with mycetoma. All N. brasiliensis strains tested were sensitive to linezolid (MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited [MIC(90)], 2 microg/ml; MIC(50), 1 microg/ml). This antimicrobial might constitute a good alternative for treatment of actinomycetoma.
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Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare but potentially serious idiosyncratic reaction. By using candidate gene and genome-wide association studies, replicated associations for DILI susceptibility with HLA genes and genes relevant to drug metabolism have been detected, mainly since 2000. The HLA associations include a strong association between flucloxacillin-induced injury and the class I allele B*5701 and weaker associations for co-amoxiclav and ximelagatran DILI with the class II genotype. These associations suggest an injury mechanism involving an immune response, possibly to a complex of drug or metabolite and protein. For genes relevant to drug metabolism, the best replicated association is between isoniazid DILI and NAT2 slow acetylation. Homozygosity for GSTM1 null and/or GSTT1 null alleles also seems to be a risk factor for DILI, with associations described independently for several drugs. Other not-yet-replicated associations have been described for genes relevant to drug metabolism and oxidative stress and cytokine genes.
Mandibular actinomycosis is caused by Actinomyces israelii. Lesions if untreated may evolve to osteitis and sequestration. Early diagnosis is crucial.
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Efficacy and safety of amoxiclav (amoxicillin clavulanate) and ampicillin were studied in antibacterial therapy of acute sinusitis. Antibacterial efficacy of amoxiclav in acute sinusitis reached 100%. Its safety was good. Antibacterial efficacy of ampicillin was 76%; 24% patients retained symptoms of the disease, x-ray picture of sinusitis. Its toxicity was higher.
In a prospective study, 105 infants aged 3-12 months with acute otitis media were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: amoxycillin/clavulanate ('Augmentin') alone (36 patients), myringotomy plus placebo (35 patients), or augmentin plus myringotomy (34 patients). The last two groups were double-blinded. Bacterial pathogens, mainly Haemophilus influenzae (of which 20% were beta-lactamase producers) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, were isolated from 60% of the ear exudates and all isolates were sensitive to augmentin. Most of the infants improved clinically within 3-6 days irrespective of the treatment protocol. As judged by otoscopy, 60% of the patients receiving augmentin, with or without myringotomy, recovered completely compared with 23% of patients treated with myringotomy plus placebo. Treatment with augmentin was also more effective than myringotomy with regard to persistence of ear infection. In the myringotomy plus augmentin group closure of the incision and resolution of the discharge from the incision site was faster than in the myringotomy plus placebo group. The addition of myringotomy to augmentin did not seem to affect either the persistence of the infection after treatment or the residual middle ear effusion.
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WHO recommendations for early antimicrobial treatment of childhood pneumonia have been effective in reducing childhood mortality, but the last major revision was over 10 years ago. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, new pneumonia pathogens, and new drugs have prompted WHO to assemble an international panel to review the literature on childhood pneumonia and to develop evidence-based recommendations for the empirical treatment of non-severe pneumonia among children managed by first-level health providers. Treatment should target the bacterial causes most likely to lead to severe disease, including Streptoccocus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. The best first-line agent is amoxicillin, given twice daily for 3-5 days, although co-trimoxazole may be an alternative in some settings. Treatment failure should be defined in a child who develops signs warranting immediate referral or who does not have a decrease in respiratory rate after 48-72 h of therapy. If failure occurs, and no indication for immediate referral exists, possible explanations for failure should be systematically determined, including non-adherence to therapy and alternative diagnoses. If failure of the first-line agent remains a possible explanation, suitable second-line agents include high-dose amoxicillin-clavulanic acid with or without an affordable macrolide for children over 3 years of age.
A significant proportion of women develop a recurrence following an initial urinary tract infection (UTI). In women with recurrent UTI, the predictive value of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) for the development of a subsequent UTI has not yet been established and it is not known whether information from an asymptomatic sample is useful in guiding antimicrobial therapy. To address these questions, we used data that originated from the 'Non-antibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections' (NAPRUTI) study: two randomized controlled trials on the prevention of recurrent UTI in non-hospitalized premenopausal and postmenopausal women (n=445). During 15months of follow-up, no difference was observed in the time to a subsequent UTI between women with and without ASB at baseline (hazard ratio: 1.07, 95% CI 0.80-1.42). The antimicrobial susceptibility and pulsed-field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern of 50 Escherichia coli strains causing a UTI were compared with those of the ASB strain isolated 1month previously. The predictive values of the susceptibility pattern of the ASB strain, based on resistance prevalence at baseline, were ≥76%, except in the case of nitrofurantoin- and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid-resistance. Asymptomatic and symptomatic isolates had similar PFGE patterns in 70% (35/50) of the patients. In the present study among women with recurrent UTI receiving prophylaxis, ASB was not predictive for the development of a UTI. However, the susceptibility pattern of E. coli strains isolated in the month before a symptomatic E. coli UTI can be used to make informed choices for empirical antibiotic treatment in this patient population.
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The study showed that infections related to short peripheral venous catheters in paediatric general wards in Mulago Hospital occurs and prevalence was 20.72% for tips and 11.3% for hubs.
This multicenter, randomized open-label study compared the efficacy and safety of roxithromycin tablets 300 mg once a day (Rx) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid tablets 875+125 mg twice a day (Acx), administered for a mean of 7 days. The study was carried out in five centers on 100 in- or out-patients of both sexes, aged between 18 and 91 years (mean 38+/-14). All patients suffered from ENT diseases, 85% with acute otitis media, 31% pharyngotonsillitis and 11% rhinosinusitis. The patients were divided into two randomized groups of 50 patients each. Clinical evaluations (signs and symptoms) were performed before, during and at the end of therapy. At the end of therapy, for intent-to-treat and per-protocol populations, a satisfactory overall clinical response was achieved by 82% of patients in the Rx group and 78% in the Acx group with similar reductions in signs and symptoms of disease in both groups. Safety was good, with only 2 patients of the Rx group and 4 patients of the Acx group presenting side effects, involving mainly the gastrointestinal system. Rx appears to be active and safe in the therapy of ENT diseases exhibiting similar effects on the reduction of signs and symptoms as Amx but with better compliance because of once-a-day administration.