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To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a second-line levofloxacin-containing triple regimen (PPI-amoxicillin-levofloxacin) in the eradication of H. pylori after non-bismuth quadruple-containing treatment failure.
A total of 15 pediatric cases (11 male and 4 female individuals, from 1 year 8 months to 12 years 1 month of age) with flagellated protozoa infection diagnosed by light microscopy were recruited. The course of the disease at the time of diagnosis was from 10 days to 11 months. Patients presented with a fever (N = 9), cough (N = 11), wheezing (N = 5) and chest pain (N = 5). Laboratory data showed elevated peripheral blood leucocytes (N = 6), eosinophilic granulocytes (N = 3), C-reactive protein (N = 5) and immunoglobulin E (N = 3). Bronchoscopy revealed a mucus plug (N = 3) and bronchiectasis (N = 1). Lung computed tomography results indicated ground-glass opacification (N = 2), atelectasis (N = 3), bronchiectasis (N = 1), bronchial wall thickening (N = 3) or nodular opacity (N = 6, including 1 case of pulmonary embolism). All children responded to metronidazole for a 2- to 5-week treatment period.
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A total of 83 clinical isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group collected from two Brazilian hospitals during 1993 and 1994, were tested for susceptibility to six antimicrobial agents by using an agar dilution method. The species most frequently isolated was B. fragilis (63.8%), followed by B. thetaiotaomicron (15.6%), B. vulgatus (9.6%) and B. distasonis (7.2%). The various species of the B. fragilis group had different patterns of resistance; B. fragilis was the most susceptible species in both medical centers. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and chloramphenicol. The following resistance rates were observed: 89.1% (Penicillin G); 77.1% (tetracycline); 18% (clindamycin) and 7.2% (cefoxitin). These results reflect the value of identification of clinical important isolates and the periodic determination of B. fragilis group susceptibility patterns at each medical institution.
Five days of CALM yields acceptable eradication rates, and is cheaper than conventional 7-day proton pump inhibitor-triple therapy. It appears to offer good results in metronidazole-resistant strains of H. pylori. A randomized trial comparing 5-day CALM with conventional 7-day therapy is needed before this regimen can be recommended for routine use.
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The initial treatment, in 1982, consisted of extraction of all primary teeth, scaling and rootplaning of the erupted permanent teeth and systemic antibiotic therapy. During 15 years, continuous and intensive periodontal treatment consisted of chlorhexidine 0.2% rinses, bi-weekly professional prophylaxis, scaling and rootplaning or surgery if indicated. Systemic antibiotics often accompanied mechanical therapy after bacteriological analysis.
The addition of pentoxifylline to our standard management protocol for patients with perforated peritonitis helped to improve their outcome significantly compared with a placebo-treated group.
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Although metronidazole (Mtz) is an important component of Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens, it has been pointed out that the increasing use of Mtz may result in increase in the incidence of Mtz-resistant strains. The present study was designed to examine the initial mechanism of resistance acquisition of H. pylori to Mtz. After 10 Mtz-susceptible strains were cultured on plates containing sub-inhibitory concentrations of Mtz, the MIC of Mtz for 9 of the 10 strains increased to levels of the Mtz-resistant strains. In the Mtz-resistance-induced strains, the expression of the TolC efflux pump (hefA) was significantly increased under Mtz exposure, without the reduction of the Mtz-reductive activity. Our finding suggests that overexpression of hefA may be the initial step in the acquisition of Mtz resistance in H. pylori.
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The present results show that the extent of root planing has a distinct influence on treatment outcomes. Patients treated with the highest instrumentation frequency showed the best long-term results.
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Eight patients with brain abscesses who refused prolonged hospitalisation were treated with a short course (6-12 days) of intravenous antibiotics followed by prolonged treatment (15-19 weeks) with an oral antibiotic regimen consisting of metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin. All patients responded favourably as shown clinically and in imaging studies. No severe adverse events or sequelae were noted. On admission all patients had a normal or mildly impaired mental status, abscesses less than 3 cm in diameter and no serious predisposing factors. Although combined surgical/medical treatment remains the standard approach in management of these patients, the findings suggest that oral antibiotic therapy only subsequent to a short course of intravenous antibiotics may be an acceptable alternative in selected cases.
Resolution of Helicobacter pylori infection is important in the management of peptic ulcer disease and reduces peptic ulcer recurrence in both adults and children. Various anti-H pylori treatment regimens have been proposed, reflecting the incomplete clinical success of each. A combination of omeprazole, clarithromycin, and tinidazole, given for 1 week, has been shown to be highly tolerable and effective, achieving a success rate of >90% in the adult population.
This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed to determine whether the use of oral probiotic preparation (prOVag®) containing three Lactobacillus strains together with standard metronidazole treatment and also targeted antibiotic treatment (following the failure of metronidazole therapy) could reduce the recurrence rates of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and aerobic vaginitis (AV).
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Perioral dermatitis appears at all ages in childhood and adolescence and may be associated with topical corticosteroid use. It may be responsive to topical metronidazole in children and adolescents and is more appropriately termed periorificial dermatitis.