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To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature in which MSSA is reported as the underlying cause of such lesions.
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The double-disk synergy test (DDST) using Mueller-Hinton agar and antibiotic disks with centrally positioned disks of amoxicillin-clavulanate, ampicillin-sulbactam, and piperacillin-tazobactam and, at a center-to-center distance of 25-30 mm, 2-4 disks with 10 various beta-lactam antibiotics per one plate was performed in 58 clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia to determine the effectivity of 3 beta-lactamase inhibitors. When tested with clavulanate as the central beta-lactamase inhibitor synergic action on tested strains was the most frequent with aztreonam (81.0% of strains), cefoperazone (63.8%), and cefepime (60.3%). With sulbactam the synergic action, i.e. DDST positivity, was high in the case of cefoperazone (15.5%), ampicillin, aztreonam and piperacillin (8.6% each); with tazobactam it was the most frequent with aztreonam (53.4%), cefoperazone (44.8%) and cefepime (37.9%). No synergy was demonstrated after application of meropenem regardless of the kind of beta-lactamase inhibitor used. In 58 strains of S. maltophilia, 55 different profiles of DDST positivity were found. The results confirm that clavulanate is the most effective inhibitor of S. maltophilia beta-lactamases. The utilization of DDST (performed in the recommended way) for the typization of strains Stenotrophomonas species and for the estimation of potential effectiveness combinations of beta-lactams with beta-lactamase inhibitors for the therapy of stenotrophomonade infections was suggested.
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BRL 25000 was administered to 37 cases with infections in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology, and the following results were obtained. The drug was administered to 17 cases with adnexitis, 13 cases with intrauterine infection and 7 cases with parametritis and/or inflammation of pelvic dead space, etc. The percentage of efficacy (excellent and good) was 74.3%. Of 7 cases where no therapeutic effect was obtained with other drugs, the percentage of efficacy was 57.1%. Antibacterial effect of BRL 25000 was studied in terms of percentage of eradication (including replacement) of clinical isolates. A high percentage of eradication (94.4% or 17/18) was obtained. Among all clinical isolates, 37.9% or 11/29 were beta-lactamase producing organisms. Eradication or replacement by BRL 25000 was noted in all these 9 strains, and BRL 25000 was proved to have a high efficacy also against penicillin or cephalosporin resistant organisms. No abnormality was noted in any patient in hematological, hepatic and renal function before and after administration of BRL 25000. As adverse reaction, diarrhea was found in 1 of 37 cases (2.7%), but it reduced after off-dose.
Chronic pilonidal disease is a debilitating condition that typically affects young adults. There is a wide variety of available therapeutic strategies reflecting the inconsistent outcomes attributed to the various operative approaches. The majority involve excision of the sinus tract followed by either primary closure or healing by secondary intention. A variety of closure approaches exist. There remains uncertainty as to which is more effective. The aim of the current study was to determine subjective and objective outcomes following excision and Karydakis flap closure in a unit where this technique is the standard of care in the management of chronic pilonidal disease.
We performed this study to analyze the clinical and histopathologic features of AANS/PCS in Korean patients.
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We analyzed the beta-lactamase production of a Serratia fonticola isolated for its resistance to cefuroxime (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration > 256 mg/l) in December 1993 from a patient hospitalized in Meaux. The wild strain was resistant to amoxycillin but sensitive to augmentin, that suggested the production of a beta-lactamase susceptible to clavulanic acid. For the wild strain, beta-lactamase production was inducible and only one enzyme with an isoelectric point of 8.12 was detected. beta-lactamase production was 16 mU/mg for non-induced extracts and ranged from 100 to 230 mU/mg in the presence of inducing beta-lactams (enzyme activity was measured with penicillin G as substrate). On a Szybalski gradient a constitutive strain was obtained. Its enzyme production was 13,000 mU/mg. The kinetics and isoelectric points of the enzymes produced by the two strains were identical. This beta-lactamase hydrolyzes penicillins (amoxycillin: Vm = 60 relative to penicillin G = 100, ticarcillin: 15), first generation cephalosporins (cephalothin Vm = 930). However, this enzyme hydrolyzes efficiently oxyimino-cephalosporins: cefuroxime (Vm = 70) and cefotaxime (Vm = 120), but cephamycins are not substrates. Clavulanic acid has a very good affinity for this beta-lactamase (Ki = 0.09 microM) which is inactivated progressively (I50 = 0.045 microgram/ml). These properties shows some similarities with those of the class A beta-lactamases of P. vulgaris RO104 (pI = 8.3), P. penneri 14HBC (pI = 6.65) and the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum MEN-1 (pI = 8.4).
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A total of 1650 children were randomized and 1305 were clinically evaluable at visit 3 (630 levofloxacin, 675 comparator). Clinical cure rates were 72.4% (456 of 630) in levofloxacin-treated and 69.9% (472 of 675) in amoxicillin/clavulanate-treated children. Cure rates were also similar for levofloxacin and comparator for each age group (< or =24 months: 68.9% versus 66.2%; >24 months: 76.9% versus 75.1%; respectively). Cure rates at visit 4 were 74.9% and 73.8% in levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate groups, respectively. The upper limits of the confidence intervals were less than the noninferiority margin of 10% indicating that levofloxacin treatment is noninferior to comparator treatment overall and in both infants (6 months to 2 years) and children 2-5 years. No differences between treatment groups regarding the frequency or type of adverse events were apparent.
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Jaundice associated with co-amoxiclav has been increasingly recognised. We aimed to characterise its clinical and histological features and to investigate linkage with human leucocyte antigen class II haplotypes.
96.5% of specialist otolaryngologists replied, 88% in sufficient detail for analysis in this study. The vast majority (96%) allowed patients to swim with tubes in situ, and all allowed hair washing. Advice for ear protection varied. If otorrhoea develops with ventilation tubes in situ, 90% of specialists advise patients to stop swimming, but allow hair washing to continue with ear protection. Ninety percent of specialists' initial treatment of otorrhoea involves a combination of suction toilet and topical steroid/antibiotic drops.
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MDR-TB can be successfully treated during pregnancy by using a regimen including effective second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs.
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Reactional joint disease subsequent to digestive tract infections have been well studied for Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia and Campylobacter. Association with HLA B27 is well documented. A review of the literature since 1976 disclosed 23 cases of articular and extra-articular inflammatory reactions following pseudomembranous Clostridium difficile infection.
Our study shows that an RCT comparing initial antibiotic treatment strategy with urgent appendectomy is feasible in children; the intervention seems to be safe.