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This study determined the postantibiotic effect (PAE) of ABT-773 versus that of amoxicillin-clavulanate against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. The PAEs of ABT-773 and amoxicillin-clavulanate ranged from 2.3 to 6.0 h and 0 to 2.2 h against S. pneumoniae and from 2.7 to 9.1 h and 0 to 0.8 h against H. influenzae, respectively.
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Out of the 391 short term peripheral venous catheters collected, 20.7% catheter tips and 11.3% catheter hubs were colonised. Phlebitis was observed in 17.4%. Bacteria isolated from colonised catheter tips were Staphylococcus aureus (60.5%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (23.5%). The most common organism isolated from the hub was Staphylococcus aureus (56.8%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (18.1%). Gram positive and negative organisms were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamycin for gram-negative organisms and augmentin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone for the gram-positive organisms. After logistic regression, factors such oedema, modified Glasgow coma score of <10/15, 6 hourly benzyl penicillin were significantly associated with colonisation of the tip while use of 25% dextrose, chloramphenicol 6 hourly and blood transfusion were significantly associated with colonisation of the hub.
Individualized optimization of amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMC) antimicrobial therapy in diabetic foot infection.
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To determine whether treatment of H pylori infection reduces the incidence of gastric cancer.
The nosocomial infection rate in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a private hospital was assessed during an 18-month survey. From 629 admissions to the ICU, 139 hospital-acquired infections were identified. The rate was 22.1% compared to the overall nosocomial infection rate of 15.3% for the entire hospital. In the ICU, the main infections occurred in the respiratory tract, 41 (29.5%), followed by surgical wounds, 35 (25.2%), urinary tract, 28 (20.1%) and the blood stream, 24 (17.3%). From 165 bacterial isolates, 80% of isolates were gram-negative rods, with P aeruginosa, 48 (36.6%), being the predominant gram-negative isolate followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, 27 (20.6%), and Enterobacter sp, 22 (16.8%). The main gram-positive isolates were S aureus, 23 (41.8%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci, 17 (30.9%), and Enterococci, 11 (20.0%). Of the 23 S aureus strains, 15 (65.2%) were methicillin-resistant (MRSA), (8 MRSA were from surgical wounds, 5 from the respiratory tract and 2 from infected urine). Only 2 of the 17 (11.8%) coagulase-negative staphylococci were methicillin-resistant, and both were isolated from wounds. Resistance to ampicillin and augmentin (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid) was high, 81.9% and 55.4%, respectively. Gentamicin, aztreonam, piperacillin and piperacillin-tazobactam showed resistance rates of less than 15%. Infection control measures aimed at reducing nosocomial infections at the hospital are often frustrated by apathy of hospital administrators who apparently are insensitive to the high nosocomial infection rate. Effort by the infection control team through seminars, lectures and newsletters have begun to show improvements in attitude and awareness of staff to infection control and preventative measures within the institution.
NTHI readily formed a biofilm on Nasopore. Treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanate alone mediated an increase in biomass by 92% to 6.63 μ(2) /μ(3) compared to incubation in sterile medium alone (3.46 μ(2) /μ(3)). Treatment with anti-IHF alone reduced the biomass by 77% to 1.29 μ(2) /μ(3) compared to incubation with naïve rabbit serum (5.53 μ(2) /μ(3)). Anti-IHF + amoxicillin/clavulanate reduced biomass by 88% to 0.66 μ(2) /μ(3) (P <0.02) compared to incubation with naïve rabbit serum.
The insertion of grommets (also known as ventilation or tympanostomy tubes) is one of the most common surgical procedures performed on children. Postoperative otorrhoea (discharge) is the most common complication with a reported incidence ranging from 10% to 50%. In the UK, many ENT surgeons treat with topical antibiotics/steroid combinations, but general practitioners, mainly through fears of ototoxicity, are unlikely to prescribe these and choose systemic broad-spectrum antibiotics.
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30 representative intrinsically penicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CONS) isolates yielded discrepant agar disk diffusion test (Bauer-Kirby) results for augmentin. Clavulanic acid (2.5 micrograms/ml) enhanced the activity of amoxycillin from 8- to greater than or equal to 128-fold (mean = 26-fold); MICs of amoxycillin (combined with 2.5 micrograms/ml clavulanate) ranged from 1-16 (mean = 3) micrograms/ml. It is recommended that clinical microbiology laboratories withhold 'susceptible' augmentin disk tests results from their reports regarding intrinsically penicillin-resistant CONS isolates. No such discrepancies were encountered among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.
This study assessed the prevalence and microbial interactions of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium necrophorum in primary endodontic infections from a Brazilian population and their antimicrobial susceptibility to some antibiotics by the E-test. One hundred ten samples from infected teeth with periapical pathologies were analyzed by culture methods. Five hundred eighty individual strains were isolated; 81.4% were strict anaerobes. F. nucleatum was found in 38 root canals and was associated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., and Eubacterium spp. F. necrophorum was found in 20 root canals and was associated with Peptostreptococcus prevotii. The simultaneous presence of F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum was not related to endodontic symptoms (p > 0.05). They were 100% susceptible to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, and cephaclor. Fusobacterium spp. is frequently isolated from primary-infected root canals of teeth with periapical pathologies. Amoxicillin is a useful antibiotic against F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum in endodontic infections and has been prescribed as the first choice in Brazil.
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We present a rare case of pulmonary actinomycosis complicated with massive hemoptysis. The patient was a 41-year-old male farmer, who had experienced prolonged fever and off-and-on blood streaked sputum for 2 years. He was admitted to our hospital because of 3 days of massive hemoptysis. He had no underlying medical illnesses, but was a heavy smoker and an alcoholic. The chest radiograph revealed patchy alveolar infiltration of the right upper lobe, mimicing tuberculosis. Massive hemoptysis was not controlled using conservative treatment and anti-tuberculous drugs. Emergency right upper lobe lobectomy was needed to stop the bleeding. Histopathologic examination demonstrated aggregates of filamentous gram-positive organisms in characteristic "sulfur granules", indicating actinomycosis. The fever subsided after intravenous augmentin was given, followed by 6 months of oral amoxicillin. The patient is doing well and has had no recurrent hemoptysis.
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A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts was conducted from the earliest available date through September 2008. We used the following MeSH and key words: amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, Augmentin, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, clarithromycin, macrolides, AND media, otitis media, and effusion. Included studies were randomized, blinded, and controlled trials evaluating guideline-recommended antibiotics (amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanate) compared to macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin or clarithromycin) in AOM in children. The primary outcome assessed was clinical failure measured between days 10 and 16 after starting antibiotic therapy. Results are reported as relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals and were calculated using a random-effects model.
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Tracheal laceration is a rare but potentially devastating complication of endotracheal intubation. Traditional management of intubation-related tracheal laceration is operative. Nonoperative management of a woman noted to have a tracheal laceration during intubation is described. Criteria by which nonoperative treatment can be considered are outlined.