Increasing age was a risk factor for amoxycillin-clavulanic acid associated jaundice; patients over 55 years had an odds ratio of 16.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-88.9) compared with patients less than 30 years. Men had an odds ratio of 2.5 (95% CI, 1.1-5.4) compared with women, although the proportion of men in the study group was larger than in the reported cases overall. History of serious medical illness, drug dose, route and duration of therapy, other medications, smoking and previous drug allergies or use of amoxycillin-clavulanic acid were not significantly associated with jaundice.
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Double tympanocentesis studies of children with acute otitis media, carried out over an 11-year period, were used to confirm that pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters can be used as predictors of the bacteriological and clinical efficacy of antimicrobial agents. Predicted susceptibilities of common respiratory pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, were compared with the bacteriological outcome of treatment in which the high-dose formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanate (90mg/kg/day) given twice daily achieved the greatest bacteriological eradication rates for an oral agent. Further analysis of the data has indicated that failure to eradicate bacteria from the middle ear fluid is strongly correlated with clinical failure.
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The present study was prospective, randomized, and double blinded. Patients were separated into four groups randomly: short-term and long-term (5 days) penicillin and short-term and long-term (5 days) amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.
Adjunctive oxygen therapy results in early eradication of pathogenic anaerobic microorganisms in cases of acute necrotizing periodontal disease. The damage to periodontal tissue is reduced.
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Very high resistance rates were observed. Overall, the lowest susceptibility was observed for trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin. Of E. coli and K. pneumoniae, 11.6% were ESBL producers. Resistance to nitrofurantoin, amikacin, and fosfomycin remained low, and susceptibility to carbapenems was fully preserved. CTX-M-15 was the dominant CTX-M variant. Four E. coli ST131 (two being H30-Rx) were identified. Of note, isolates harbouring rmtB and fosA3 were detected.
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A randomised double blind placebo controlled clinical trial.
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The review authors independently assessed all potential studies identified from the searches for methodological quality. We extracted and analysed relevant data separately. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We initially pooled all types of acute LRTI in the meta-analyses. We investigated the heterogeneity of results using the forest plot and Chi(2) test. We also used the index of the I(2) statistic to measure inconsistent results among trials. We conducted subgroup and sensitivity analyses.
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Serial plasma concentrations were measured after administration of two 1 g tablets of Augmentin (1750 mg of amoxicillin and 250 mg of clavulanate) to 14 adult patients with melioidosis. Monte Carlo simulation was used to predict the concentration of each drug following multiple doses of co-amoxiclav at different dosages and dose intervals. The proportion of the dose-interval above MIC (T > MIC) was calculated from 10,000 simulated subject plasma concentration profiles together with chequerboard MIC data from 46 clinical isolates and four reference strains of Burkholderia pseudomallei.
A total of 260 patients were included, with a mean age of 68.3 years and a mean FEV1 (% predicted) of 58.9 %. Twenty-two percent of patients had significant cardiovascular comorbidity. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics were moxifloxacin in 137 cases and amoxicillin-clavulanate in 50 cases. The rate of failure at 4 weeks was 12.5 %, with no differences between the two most prescribed antibiotics; however, patients treated with moxifloxacin had symptoms for 1.9 fewer days (P = 0.01). The mean cost of the exacerbation was 344.96 (95 % CI: 48.55-641.78), with 9.6 % of the costs for drugs and 72.9 % for hospital care of patients for whom treatment had failed.