130 children prone to otitis media aged between 6 months and 6 years, 108 of whom were eligible and followed for 3 months.
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By the 1960s and 1970s, problems in the antibacterial treatment of infections had begun to emerge. Previously active antibacterials were being compromised by the development of resistance. Beta-lactamase production was identified in isolates of staphylococci, and, amongst others, in Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. The discovery of the potent beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid, and its protective effect on amoxicillin, a semi-synthetic penicillin with good oral absorption and potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, was thus of great importance in the treatment of bacterial disease. Following preliminary clinical studies in bronchitis and urinary tract infections, amoxicillin/clavulanate therapy was investigated in a wide range of infections and proved to demonstrate a high level of clinical efficacy. These results supported the launch of amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) in 1981 for use in upper and lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections and obstetric, gynaecological and intra-abdominal infections.
No scientific evidence demonstrating advantages of levofloxacine treatment over amoxycillin-clavulanic acid was found, or over acetyl cefuroxime as empirical PC first-choice treatment for patients with outbreaks of COPD.
Suppurative parotidis is an uncommon disease in newborns, with limited information available on its pathogenesis and management: approximately 50 cases have been reported in the literature. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs. The predominant organism is Staphylococcus aureus. The administration of empiric antimicrobial therapy is an essential part of the management in very young patients. Prognosis is good and recurrence of the disease is unusual. We describe a 21-day-old newborn who presented with fever and unilateral swelling of the parotid region, and provide a literature review.
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Background. The chronic recommendation of pediatric drugs could exhibit erosive and cariogenic problems. Objective. To evaluate the effects of different pediatric drugs on the color stability of various restorative materials. Methods. Five specimens (1 mm × 3 mm) were prepared and immersed in ten different pediatric drugs and agitated every 8 hours daily for 2 min up to 1 week. Between immersion periods, the samples were stored in artificial saliva. After 1-week period, ΔE(⁎) values were calculated. Two-way ANOVA and Fisher's LSD test were used for statistical analysis at a level of p < 0.05. Results. ΔE(⁎) values were only significantly influenced by restorative material factor (p < 0.001) and varied in the range of 2.08 and 6.55 units for all drugs/restorative materials. The highest ΔE(⁎) was found in Ferrosanol B-composite (6.55 ± 1.38) and the lowest one was found in Dolven-glass ionomer (2.08 ± 0.40) pairwise. The most prominent ΔE(⁎) value elevations were obtained in composite material compared to the compomer and/or glass ionomers in Macrol, Ferrosanol B, and Ventolin (p < 0.001; for all) and also for other drugs (p < 0.05). Dolven exhibited significantly higher values compared to Augmentin (p = 0.021), Macrol (p = 0.018), and Ventolin (p = 0.013) in compomer group. Conclusion. The clinically perceptible color changes for tested composite/pediatric drug pairwise can be more problematic than compomer and glass ionomers in pediatric dentistry.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability, safety and efficacy of an ambulatory treatment protocol in patients with uncomplicated acute diverticulitis.
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Conjunctival and nasal swab specimens were obtained for culture and susceptibility testing, and cats were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups (16 cats/group) on day 1: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (12.5 mg/kg [5.68 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h, for 14 days), cefovecin (8.0 mg/kg [3.64 mg/lb], SC, once), or doxycycline (10.0 mg/kg [4.55 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h, for 14 days). Oculonasal discharge, sneezing, coughing, dyspnea, demeanor, and food intake were scored twice daily for 14 days (scale, 0 [subjectively normal] to 3 [markedly abnormal]).
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The increased prevalence of multidrug resistant ESBL pathogens poses challenges for health care providers at KNH and signifies the need for new approach to treat UTI. It would be prudent for laboratories to include specialized tests for detection of ESBL producing pathogens from isolates obtained from in-patients. Further studies on the mechanisms and pathways utilized by these bacteria to cause UTI will highlight other avenues in patient management.
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The purpose of this study was to compare surgical-site infection rates in obese women who had extended prophylactic antibiotic (EPA) vs standard prophylactic antibiotic.
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Clindamycin in both concentrations tested (8 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml) showed the highest bacterial resistance (85.9%), followed by amoxicillin (43.7%) and A-CA (12.0%). All comparisons among the three antibiotics used in the study exhibited statistical significance (p = <0.05) in both concentrations tested (8 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml), and under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The most prevalent resistant species identified by PCR in primary dentition infections were: Streptococcus oralis and Prevotella intermedia (75.0%); Treponema denticola and Porphyromonas gingivalis (48.3%); Streptococcus mutans (45.0%); Campylobacter rectus; and Streptococcus salivarius (40%).
Amoxicillin-clavulanate MICs of 160 Escherichia coli isolates with characterized resistance mechanisms were obtained by 2 MIC gradient strip brands, 3 automated systems, and reference ISO microdilution method using EUCAST (fixed 2μg/mL clavulanate) and CLSI (2:1 ratio) criteria. Discrepancies, mainly obtained with gradient strips, lead to an essential agreement range of 76.2-92.5.
A total of 212 children aged 6 months to 10 years were examined and treated for otitis media, in a 13-month hospital-based study.