A 32-year-old previously healthy woman was diagnosed with acute tonsillitis by her family doctor and treated empirically with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875/125 mg) twice daily for 5 days. Four days after completing antibiotic therapy, peritonsillar abscess of left tonsil developed. Needle aspiration followed by incision and drainage were performed by otolaryngologist at the Emergency Department. Next, the patient was discharged home on a 10-day course of cefuroxime and metronidazole. The symptoms of peritonsillar abscess were subsiding during treatment, however on the last day of antibiotic therapy, swelling and pain of the left ankle appeared. Five days later the patient was consulted by rheumatologist. Cultures of throat swabs and abscess aspirate collected 2 weeks before revealed the presence of Streptococcus pyogenes. Antistreptolysin O (ASO) titer was evaluated and proved to be 412 IU/ml (normal 0-200 IU/ml). The level of C-reactive protein was 13,0 mg/L (normal <5,0 mg/L). There was no known cardiac involvement. Poststreptococcal reactive arthritis was diagnosed. Left ankle arthralgia persisted for about 5-6 weeks. Six months after the presentation at the Emergency Department, the patient was well, with ASO titer reaching 262 IU/ml.
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A 36 year old male patient presented to emergency cardiology department because of fatigability. ECG revealed high grade II atrio-ventricular block and bradycardia of 31 beats/min. An erythema increasing in size to up to 7-8 cm in diameter appeared a month earlier and spontaneously resolved within 10 days. ELISA testing for antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi IgM was positive and IgG titer was 1:40. Intravenous ceftriaxone 2g qod, and 0.5 g metronidazole tid lead to regression of grade II block to grade I block within 2 days. Grade I block persisted for an additional 10 days. This is a relatively rare case of early occurrence of Lyme carditis within one month of exposure as the first sign of Lyme disease dissemination.
Gels have been considered as a popular mode of delivering medicament for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (e.g. human immunodeficiency virus, bacterial vaginosis, epididymitis, human papillomavirus infection and condylomata acuminata etc.). The present study discusses the development of novel olive oil based emulsion hydrogels (EHs) using sorbitan monopalmitate as the structuring agent. The developed EHs may be tried as drug delivery vehicle for the treatment of STDs. The formation of EHs was confirmed by fluorescence and confocal microscopy. FTIR studies suggested intermolecular hydrogen bonding amongst the components of the EHs. X-ray diffraction study suggested the amorphous nature of the EHs. The developed EHs have shown non-Newtonian flow behavior. The EHs were found to be biocompatible. The formulations were able to effectively deliver two model antimicrobial drugs (e.g. ciprofloxacin and metronidazole), commonly used in the treatment of the STDs.
Samples from consecutive ninety patients were obtained for culture and sensitivity testing. Resistance to individual antibiotics were tested using the E-test and MIC(90) read from the strips. Resistance to rifampicin and nitrofurantoin were used as a surrogate for rifabutin and furazolidine.
The purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of a 1-week proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy after failure of dual therapy in Helicobacter pylori eradication, and to compare the effectiveness of clarithromycin and metronidazole in this regimen. Between January 1996 and March 1997, 67 patients with persistent H. pylori infection after a 2-week course of dual therapy (amoxicillin plus omeprazole) were enrolled. They were randomly assigned to receive amoxicillin (1000 mg twice daily) and omeprazole (20 mg twice daily) plus either metronidazole (500 mg twice daily) or clarithromycin (250 mg twice daily). Endoscopy was performed in each patient to assess the status of H. pylori using the rapid urease test (CLOtest) and the histologic findings before dual therapy, after dual therapy, and after triple therapy. H. pylori isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance when triple therapy failed. The 1-week triple therapy was well tolerated in both groups with no adverse effects severe enough to cause withdrawal from the trial. Residual H. pylori was eradicated in 94% (33/35) of patients in the clarithromycin group and 84% (27/32) in the metronidazole group; the difference was not statistically significant. All seven patients in whom triple therapy failed were infected with metronidazole-resistant isolates and two also had clarithromycin-resistant isolates. This 1-week triple therapy is safe and effective in eradicating residual H. pylori after dual therapy failure. Failure of the rescue regimen is related to antimicrobial agent resistance. Because of the high metronidazole resistance rate in Taiwan, clarithromycin appears to be more promising than metronidazole for the control of H. pylori.
In 2001, the majority of surgical departments in Israel used a conservative approach to perioperative management of patients undergoing elective colorectal resections. Significant changes occurred during the last three years. The perioperative routines used today in most general surgery departments in Israel comply with current recommendations.
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Eighteen strains of Campylobacter sputorum bv. paraureolyticus (isolated over a 12-month period from seven dairy cows contained in a single herd) were examined by resistotyping, and macrorestriction profiling using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The resistotypes of these strains were identical, although repeat testing indicated resistance to metronidazole was not a reliable trait for typing purposes. Five SmaI-derived genotypes were identified among the 18 strains. In 5 of 7 cows, isolates obtained from the same animal, but from different time periods, were genotypically indistinguishable, indicating persistence of infection. Macrorestriction profiles of 5 strains representing the 5 SmaI genotypes and 8 other strains of C. sputorum from various sources, were prepared using 4 endonucleases (SmaI, SalI, BamHI and KpnI). The only other strain of C. sputorum bv. paraureolyticus examined (a Canadian isolate from human faeces), was found to have a SmaI macrorestriction profile identical with one of the five clones isolated from the cattle. Moreover, SalI and BamHI profiles of all bv. paraureolyticus strains were similar, while digestion with KpnI was not observed. By contrast, the seven strains of C. sputorum bv. sputorum yielded various macrorestriction profiles with all the enzymes used, and features distinguishing the two biovars studied could be identified. This study indicates that C. sputorum can persist in cattle for at least 12 months and exhibits a clonal population genetic structure.
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64 consecutive patients with active duodenal ulcer associated with H. pylori infection were randomized to receive either a one-week triple-drug regimen (lansoprazole, clarithromycin, secnidazole) or a one-week quadruple-drug regimen (lansoprazole, amoxycillin, colloidal bismuth subcitrate, secnidazole). H. pylori eradication and ulcer healing were assessed 4 weeks after completion of therapy. Patients were followed up at 24 weeks and 52 weeks for H. pylori recurrence.
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A multisite study was conducted in Africa to assess the efficacy of antibiotics to reduce mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1.