On the day of oocyte collection, 350 patients were randomized, with sequentially numbered opaque-sealed envelopes containing treatment allocation assigned randomly by computer, to receive co-amoxiclav on the day before and the day of embryo transfer, or no antibiotics. Following transfer, the catheter tips were cultured and assessed to identify the organism(s) isolated and to quantify the level of the contamination. Couples were followed for 8 weeks to determine whether they had achieved clinical pregnancy. Outcome assessors were blinded to the treatment allocation, and the analysis was by intention to treat.
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The total outpatient consumption of antibacterials increased from 15.21 DDD/1000 inhabitant-days in 1996 to 20.08 in 1999, and decreased to 16.97 in 2003. The consumption of restricted antibiotics decreased from 7.29 in 1999 to 5.25 DDD/1000 inhabitant-days in 2003. There was a positive correlation between antibiotic consumption and the number of newspaper articles (r=0.92), and a negative correlation between the number of diagnostic tests and antibiotic consumption (r=-0.73 for the C-reactive protein test and -0.68 for the streptococcal antigen detection test). Reduced antibiotic consumption was paralleled by a decrease in penicillin resistance among invasive pneumococci. No increase in mastoiditis cases was observed in spite of reduced antibiotic consumption.
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During the 2-week period, 24 421 patient encounters were recorded; 1033 patients were prescribed an antibiotic (4.2%). The median number of prescriptions per dentist for the 2 weeks was 3. Broad spectrum antibiotics were most commonly prescribed: 82% of all prescriptions were for amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and clindamycin. Antibiotics were often prescribed in the absence of fever (92.2%) and without any local treatment (54.2%). The most frequent diagnosis for which antibiotics were prescribed was periapical abscess (51.9%). Antibiotics were prescribed to 63.3% of patients with periapical abscess and 4.3% of patients with pulpitis. Patterns of prescriptions were confirmed by the data from the self-reported practice.
A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. The sample was derived from the population of subjects attending Cruces Hospital for evaluation and extraction of 1 M3 under local anesthesia. Patients were treated with postoperative placebo or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 500/125 mg 3 times a day during 4 days. The outcome variable was infectious and inflammatory complications. Sex, age, smoking, molar depth, angulation, need for sectioning, ostectomy, and operation time were recorded. Analysis was by intention to treat, risk measures, and logistic regression.
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BRL 25000 granules containing 2 parts amoxicillin and 1 part potassium clavulanate were administered to children suffering from acute infections at a daily dose of 50 mg/kg in 3 or 4 divided doses for at least 3 days. Infections included acute airway infections (81), scarlet fever and suspected scarlet fever (4), urinary tract infections (4), impetigo contagiosa (1) and acute colitis (1). Bacteria were eradicated in 91.3% (63/69) of cases treated with the BRL 25000 granules, with only 2 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 2 of Escherichia coli, 1 of Haemophilus influenzae and 1 of Streptococcus pneumoniae remaining. Eight beta-lactamase producing strains were detected amongst the 49 clinical isolates studied and of these, 6 were eradicated after administration of the BRL 25000 granules. Good clinical efficacy was obtained in 97.8% of cases (89/91), with 1 case of acute tonsillitis and 1 of acute colitis showing no improvement. Adverse reactions were limited to 1 case of vomiting and 3 of diarrhea, and no abnormal laboratory findings were detected.
Escherichia coli remains one of the most common etiologies of secondary peritonitis. CMY-2 is the most prevalent AmpC enzyme identified in nosocomial E. coli isolates causing bacteremia in Taiwan. This report is of a patient who underwent surgery for intestinal perforations due to blunt abdominal trauma and developed unexpected CMY-2-producing E. coli septicemia in the early postoperative period. The AmpC-type CMY-2 enzyme might partially contribute to the poor response to antimicrobial therapy of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or flomoxef. Late changes in antibiotic therapy to an appropriate regimen of cefpirome based on the culture results did not result in a positive outcome and the patient died. Whether selection of an anti-AmpC regimen is appropriate as first-line treatment for traumatic abdomen-associated septicemia should be an area of further investigation in Taiwan.
The study population consisted of 2 groups of women who had previously been enrolled in a randomized clinical trial: group A was not treated, and group B was treated. All women were scheduled for follow-up visits every 6 months, or more frequently if symptoms arose. Microbiological evaluation was performed only in symptomatic women. All women were followed up for a mean of 38.8 months to analyze data from urine cultures and antibiograms.
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A randomized, double-blind, multicenter study of adults with acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) compared the efficacy and safety of two azithromycin (AZM) regimens, 500 mg/day once daily for 3 days (AZM-3) or 6 days (AZM-6) to the efficacy and safety of an amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC) regimen of 500-125 mg three times daily for 10 days. A total of 936 subjects with clinically and radiologically documented ABS were treated (AZM-3, 312; AZM-6, 311; AMC, 313). Clinical success rates were equivalent among per-protocol subjects at the end of therapy (AZM-3, 88.8%; AZM-6, 89.3%; AMC, 84.9%) and at the end of the study (AZM-3, 71.7%; AZM-6, 73.4%; AMC, 71.3%). Subjects treated with AMC reported a higher incidence of treatment-related adverse events (AE) (51.1%) than AZM-3 (31.1%, P < 0.001) or AZM-6 (37.6%, P < 0.001). More AMC subjects discontinued the study (n = 28) than AZM-3 (n = 7) and AZM-6 (n = 11) subjects. Diarrhea was the most frequent treatment-related AE. AZM-3 and AZM-6 were each equivalent in efficacy and better tolerated than AMC for ABS.