Bacterial infections are frequently associated with diseases of the eyelids, cornea, and conjunctiva. Animals sustaining KCS commonly have bacterial infections of the external eye owing to a lack of antimicrobial properties present in the normal tearfilm. Infection can occur in the nasolacrimal duct or lacrimal sac, which is referred to as dacryocystitis. Severe corneal ulcers are frequently infected with bacteria, especially Pseudomonas sp. Three new topical ophthalmic antibiotics have recently become commercially available: ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin.
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Antibacterial resistance (ABR) is a public threat. Sri Lanka is a country with limited surveillance of ABR in the community. The WHO methodology was adapted to identify ABR in outpatient settings (nonhospitalised patients) and its link to consumption of antibiotics.
Based on results of the MTT assay and CVS, the order of cell viability after exposure to the antibiotic solutions was cefmenoxime ≥ tosufloxicin ≥ dibekacin ≥ levofloxacin ≥ norfloxacin = gatifloxacin = moxifloxacin. For the anti-inflammatory solutions, the order of cell viability was betamethasone ≥ betamethasone + fradiomycin > preservative-free diclofenac ≥ preservative-free bromfenac > 0.02% fluoromethorone ≥ 0.1% fluoromethorone = diclofenac + preservative = bromfenac + preservative = pranoprofen. The anti-inflammatory drugs were more toxic than the antibiotics. The toxicity of antibiotic drugs against ocular surface cells was dependent on the pharmaceutical components of the solution, whereas that of the anti-inflammatory drugs was dependent on both the pharmaceutical components and the preservatives.
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During the analyzed time interval, a significant increase of the number of K. pneumoniae ESBL(+) strains was noted: in 1997 - 16.5% (14/85) and in 2000 - 40.4% (22/54) (p<0.001). Among the ESBL(+) strains, an increase of the number of strains resistant to the tested antibiotics, except for nalidixic acid, was demonstrated
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The effect of a single day treatment with 600 mg norfloxacin 600 mg ofloxacin or 1,920 mg trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol was determined on 114 patients with acute cystitis. The overall clinical efficacy was excellent in 101 patients (89%), moderate in 9 patients (8%) and poor in 4 patients (3%). Recurrence was observed in 8 cases (8%) within 6 weeks after the treatment. The effectiveness rate and the recurrence rate were inferior in those caused by S. epidermidis compared with those caused by E. coli.
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We have isolated spontaneous mutant strains of Escherichia coli KL16 showing different levels of nalidixic acid (NAL) resistance. From 40 independent mutants, 36 had gyrA and four had gyrB mutations. Most of the gyrA mutations (30/36) conferred high level NAL resistance. In contrast, the only gyrB mutation that conferred a relatively high level of NAL resistance also determined enhanced susceptibility to quinolones with a piperazinyl substituent at C7 position of the quinolone ring (amphoteric quinolones). This gyrB mutation (denoted gyrB1604), jointly with a gyrA mutation (denoted gyrA972) which confers a high level of quinolone resistance, were used to construct strain IC2476, carrying the two gyr mutant alleles. The susceptibility of this strain to amphoteric quinolones (pipemidic acid, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin) was similar to that of the gyrA972 single mutant. This result indicates that the change in GyrA subunit which determines a high level of quinolone-resistance has the capacity to mask the hypersusceptibility to amphoteric quinolones promoted by the GyrB1604 mutant subunit. This capacity was further confirmed by studying the effects of ciprofloxacin (CFX) on gyrase inhibition in the gyrA972 gyrB1604 strain.
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We studied 107 isolates of Escherichia coli O153 from sporadic diarrhea cases in Fukui, Toyama, Aichi, and Saga prefectures from 1991 to 2005 for antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance, based on standard disk diffusion. Of 12 drugs tested, ampicillin displayed resistance to 72.9% of isolates, streptomycin to 48.6%, tetracycline to 46.7%, sulfisoxazole to 46.7%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole to 29.9%, nalidixic acid (NA) to 29.9%, and ciprofloxacin (CPFX) to 24.3%. Ten of 32 isolates resistant to 3-6 drugs and 16 of 18 isolates resistant to 7-10 drugs were resistant both to NA and CPFX. Mutations of amino acid in quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA and parC genes were detected in 24 isolates resistant both to NA and CPFX, and in 1 isolate resistant to NA. The former possessed a combination of double substitution (S83L and D87L) in GyrA and a single substitution (S80I) in ParC. Some 12 of 24 isolates possessed another single substitution (E84V or E84G or A108T) in ParC. The 25 isolates were classified into 4 types as follows. 1 isolate as type 1: GyrA (S83L) and ParC (S80I); 12 isolates as type 2: GyrA (S83L and D87N) and ParC (S80I); 8 isolates as type 3: GyrA (S83L and D87N) and ParC (S80I and E84G/S80R and E84V); and 4 isolate as type 4: GyrA (S83L and D87N) and ParC (S80I and A108T). In the relationship between amino acid mutations and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of fluoroquinolone, MICs of CPFX, ofloxacin, and norfloxacin showed 1microg/mL, 2microg/mL and 8microg/mL in type 1; 8 approximately 32microg/mL, 8 approximately 32microg/mL and 16 approximately 256microg/mL in type 2; and 32 approximately 256microg/mL' 32 approximately 128microg/mL and 128-->512microg/ mL in types 3 and 4. These results suggest that most of multiple-antimicrobial-resitant E. coli O153 isolates from sporadic diarrhea cases were resistant to fluoroquinolones and possessed mutations at gyrA and parC genes associated with fluoroquinolone resistance.
Alternating norfloxacin- and rifaximin-based primary prophylaxis for SBP showed higher efficacy with the same safety profile when compared with monotherapy of norfloxacin.
Of 490 enrolled patients, 89 (18.1%) had diabetes mellitus. The mean age of diabetics and nondiabetics was respectively 64.9 +/- 13.2 (SD) and 54.4 +/- 23.3 years. Most diabetics had asymptomatic bacteriuria and had undergone bladder catheterization more frequently than the nondiabetics. The most frequent causative agents of UTI in diabetics and nondiabetics were: E. coli (respectively, 56.1 vs. 56.8%), Proteus sp. (7.9% vs. 7.2%), Pseudomonas sp. (6.7 vs. 8.2%), Enterococcus sp. (6.7 vs. 7.2%). More than 50% of the isolated Pseudomonas sp. strains in both groups were resistant to gentamicin, piperacillin and norfloxacin. Both diabetics (52.8%) and nondiabetics (42.2%) had recurrent UTI during the follow-up period; the difference in the incidences did not reach statistical significance.