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Urine and feces samples were collected from HIV-infected patients of the Centre de Traitement Ambulatoire de Kabinda (CTA/Kabinda, Kinshasa) and analyzed at the Reference National Laboratory for HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections. The isolated enterobacteriaceae strains were identified by conventional microbiological methods. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern was carried out by disc diffusion method.
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Researchers are becoming more interested in studying probiotics at present due to their benefit to human and animal health. In this study, newly isolated strains from human feces were evaluated for probiotic properties. A total of sixty isolated strains were collected from feces and six out of sixty isolated strains could inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella typhimurium. The strain which gave the best inhibitory effect was selected for further characterization as a probiotic strain. The identification of this strain was analyzed on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence. This strain was Gram-positive, rod shaped, and catalase and oxidase-negative, and produced acids from D-glucose, D-fructose, lactose, mannitol, sorbitol, inulin and starch. It could not hydrolyze esculin or red blood cells. Based on its 16S rDNA gene sequence, it was Lactobacillus salivarius, and so was called L. salivarius MTC 1026 in this study, and was closely related with L. salivarius DSPV 344T isolated from the calf gut. It was able to survive in gastric and small intestinal juices at pH 2.0 and 1.0% bile salt for several hours and also could grow at 45°C. Moreover, this strain showed inhibitory activity against a variety of food-borne pathogens. It was highly sensitive to piperacillin, chloramphenicl, ampicillin, erythromycin and ceftazidime. After plasmid curing, this strain was susceptible to gentamicin, amikacin, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. L. salivarius MTC 1026 could significantly inhibit the adhesion process of E. coli ATCC 25922 and S. typhimurium ATCC 13311 on Caco-2 monolayers in a competition assay and also reduced invasion of both pathogens (4-log cfu/ml) in an exclusion and displacement assay. Therefore, it was clearly demonstrated in this study that L. salivarius MTC 1026 has shown promising properties as a candidate for a potential probiotic for applications in humans and animals.
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Ten trials and 3 meta-analyses were included. Of the 10 trials, 2 examined the use of secondary prophylaxis for prevention of subsequent episodes of SBP, 4 examined the use of primary prophylaxis to prevent an initial SBP episode, and 4 examined the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in a mixed population. Seven trials evaluated the use of an antibiotic compared to placebo or no treatment. Only 1 trial evaluated norfloxacin versus trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Trial duration varied from 24 days to 12 months. In general, trials examining norfloxacin as secondary prophylaxis found significantly decreased occurrence of SBP but no significant difference in mortality rates. Primary prophylaxis studies found no significant difference in the incidence of infections, including SBP, with norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin treatment but significantly lower incidence of gram-negative infections. Mixed population studies found a significantly decreased incidence of SBP but no significant difference in mortality. In the 3 meta-analyses, a significant decrease in mortality and an overall decrease in SBP incidence in the treatment groups were noted.
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We evaluated the benefits of prolonging norfloxacin therapy from 12 to 24 weeks for complicated urinary tract infection in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. During the second 12 weeks, norfloxacin was superior to placebo (P less than 0.05) in suppressing bacteriuria. Adverse effects were common but mostly confined to the initial 12 weeks.
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The effects of newly available broad-spectrum antibiotics, used for infection prophylaxis and therapy in cancer patients, on faecal aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were investigated. Quantitative and qualitative aerobic and anaerobic cultures were performed in 34 patients before therapy and between the sixth and eleventh day of therapy. Of the two prophylactic regimens norfloxacin plus amphotericin-B eliminated Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci without encouraging growth of yeasts or Clostridium difficile whereas trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole did not eliminate enterococci and colonization with toxin producing C. difficile occurred in two of ten patients. The effect of the two infection prophylaxis regimens on counts of faecal anaerobes was comparable. Monotherapy with ceftazidime and combination therapy with ceftazidime plus tobramycin did not result in major changes (greater than or equal to 3 log increase or decrease) in faecal anaerobic bacteria. Enterobacteriaceae were eliminated except in one patient treated with ceftazidime. The effect of these therapeutic regimens on enterococci was variable. Colonization by yeasts or by toxin negative C. difficile (two of three patients) were found in the ceftazidime group only. During combination therapy with piperacillin plus amikacin for fever during granulocytopenia signs of a disturbed faecal flora were found in one of three patients. Changes in faecal anaerobic bacteria were most marked in the ceftazidime plus piperacillin group. Moreover the isolation of a toxin positive C. difficile occurred in this group, in a patient who was colonized with toxin negative C. difficile before treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum (S. gallinarum) is the causative organism of fowl typhoid, and an outbreak of fowl typhoid in Korea was confirmed in 1992. The aim of this study was to investigate possible changes in fluoroquinolone susceptibility among S. gallinarum isolates from 1995 to 2001, and to analyse mutations of the gyrA gene in fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. Among 258 S. gallinarum isolates tested by the disk diffusion method, isolates from 1995 (n=18) were susceptible to all fluoroquinolones tested, whereas a number of isolates from 2001 (n=46) showed reduced susceptibility to enrofloxacin (6.5%), ciprofloxacin (10.9%), norfloxacin (52.5%) and ofloxacin (82.6%). The minimum inhibitory concentration range of enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and danofloxacin increased from < or =0.06 approximately 0.25 microg/ml in 1995 to 2 approximately 8 microg/ml in 2001. When amino acid changes in the gyrA were analysed by DNA sequencing, 22.5% and 14.7% among 258 isolates had a mutation at the Ser-83 and Asp-87 codons, respectively, and the prevalence of these mutants increased from 5.6% in 1995 to 89.1% in 2001. These mutants contained a change from Ser to Phe or Tyr at codon 83, or a change from Asp to Gly, Tyr or Asn at codon 87, and showed a range of minimum inhibitory concentrations of enrofloxacin from 0.5 to 8 microg/ml, ciprofloxacin from 0.25 to 4 microg/ml, norfloxacin from 2 to 32 microg/ml, ofloxacin from 0.5 to 4 microg/ml, and danofloxacin from 0.5 to 4 microg/ml. These results suggested an important association between the gyrA mutations and fluoroquinolone resistance of S. gallinarum.
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We conclude that SsrA and SmpB are important for persister survival and may serve as a good target for developing new antibiotics that kill persister bacteria for improved treatment of persistent bacterial infections.
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Recently a rapid decrease in the susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates to fluoroquinolones has occurred and gonococcal fluoroquinolone resistance is now a significant problem in the treatment of gonorrhoea in Japan. Thus, in order to investigate the quinolone resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of N gonorrhoeae we studied an alteration in the DNA gyrase subunit A (GyrA) which is well-known as a common mechanism of bacterial quinolone resistance.
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Prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with norfloxacin has been associated to development of antibiotic resistance. We investigated whether pentoxifylline compared to norfloxacin reduces bacterial translocation and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in rats with CCl(4)-induced cirrhosis and ascites.