Inhibition of transfer of four conjugative R plasmids by ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and pipemidic acid was investigated in an Escherichia coli mating system. The absolute concentrations needed for inhibition of conjugation varied from 0.12 microgram/ml for ciprofloxacin to 16 micrograms/ml for pipemidic acid, but the relationship to the MICs for the parent strains was identical for all substrates. Concentrations for a 90% reduction of transconjugants were in the range of one to six times the MIC for the parent strains, which also had lethal effects on donors and recipients. A similar effect on conjugation was found with chloramphenicol. These observations question the specificity of transfer inhibition by quinolones and cast doubt on the clinical importance of such an effect.
normax generic name
The overall prevalence of diabetic UTI was 13.8%. Out of the total number of patients, 11.2% and 23.1% had asymptomatic and symptomatic bacteriuria respectively. DM patients with no previous history of UTI [AOR=3.55; 95% CI=1.186-10.611] and illiterate [AOR=2.5; 95% CI=1.052-5.989] had higher odds of UTI compared with their counterparts. E. coli was the commonest isolated uropathogen followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococci. All the isolated bacteria were resistant to ampicillin but sensitive to nitrofurantoin. Gram-negative isolates demonstrated high level of resistance to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole in 9 (81.8%), gentamicin in 8 (72.7%) and ceftriaxone in 7 (63.6%) patients. Gram-positive bacteria showed resistance to penicillin in 14 (87.5%), norfloxacin in 10 (62.5%) and ciprofloxacin in 8 (50.0%) patients. Multidrug resistance was observed in 93.9% of the isolated uropathogens.
The susceptibility of 26 strains of Campylobacter pylori to 7 new quinolone antibiotics and nalidixic acid was determined. All strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. Difloxacin, A-56620, A-62254, and ciprofloxacin were equally effective against the test strains with MICs ranging from 0.06 to 2.0 micrograms/ml. Fleroxacin, amifloxacin, perfloxacin, and norfloxacin showed only moderate activity against C. pylori. The new quinolone agents, which are bactericidal, may prove useful in the eradication of C. pylori from the gastric mucosa.
normax 50 mg
The solid dispersion of norfloxacin with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) k30 and carbopol 974p NF (CP), lends an ample credence for better therapeutic efficacy.
Two spectrophotometric procedures for the selective determination of norfloxacin (NF) in the presence of its decarboxylated degradant are described. The first depends upon measurement of the pH-induced absorbance difference (delta A) of the drug solution between 0.1 N HCl and 0.1 N NaOH at 280 nm. The second involves chelation of the intact drug with iron (II) in acetate buffer solution (pH 5.7 +/- 0.1) to form a yellow-coloured chelate which absorbs at 358 nm. The two procedures are applied successfully for the determination of the intact drug both in pure form and in tablet form. The two methods retain their accuracy in the presence of up to 62% and 76% degradants, respectively.
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In the three cases, the norfloxacin was substituted for another antibiotic effective against the bacteria, and the precipitate spontaneously resolved in all cases within a few days with no untoward ocular effect.
During the survey, we observed a 13.2% decrease of norfloxacin prescriptions between the first quarter 2008 and the first quarter 2009. The (fosfomycin+nitrofurantoin)/norfloxacin ratio increased between the third quarter 2007 and the first quarter 2009 from 0.55 to 0.72 and from 0.82 to 1.13 for general practitioners and hospital physicians respectively. The global number of patients treated with these antibiotics remained stable during the period. The number of fluoroquinolone prescription was stable between the first quarter 2008 and the first quarter 2009 with 28,427 DDD and 28,363 DDD, respectively; while the number of single dose rise in the same time from 151 DDD to 427.5 DDD, respectively.
HCECs were incubated with FQs (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin), both as commercial ophthalmic formulations and as unpreserved solutions. Cells incubated in different formulations of gentamicin, cefazolin, and benzalkonium chloride (BAC) were also compared. A cell viability assay, using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay, was used to evaluate the drug effects on cell viability after five incubation times (30 min, 1 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h). Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured with a voltohmmeter to help understand changes in paracellular permeability at five time points (4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h). Cell morphology was observed with an inverted fluorescence microscope, with multiple stage position and in time-lapse mode.