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Fecal samples were collected from 180 clinically healthy cattle in Golestan province. After primary enrichment, samples were streaked on sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with cefixime and potassium tellurite (CT-SMAC). Non-sorbitol fermenting (NSF) Escherichia coli isolates were subjected to serotyping using commercial O157 antisera and rfb O157 gene PCR. Isolates were additionally tested for major virulence factors of EHEC including stx1, stx2, eae and ehly by multiplex-PCR.
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This is the first report combining N. gonorrhoeae antibiotic susceptibility testing with molecular typing by using NG-MAST in Japan. Although a large diversity in NG-MAST was identified, based on comparisons with the international data, the ST1407 with a multidrug-resistant phenotype currently seems to be circulating worldwide.
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Fecal samples from 15 patients with active pouchitis (pouch disease activity index [PDAI], > or =7) who failed standard antibiotic treatment were inoculated onto Iso-sensitest agar. Antibiotic testing discs were added, incubated, and sensitivity patterns were recorded. Patients then were treated with antibiotics based on predicted sensitivity; PDAI scores were assessed 4 weeks later. Thirteen patients enrolled in the study had failed to enter remission after treatment with ciprofloxacin and metronidazole and 2 patients had relapsed after maintenance treatment with ciprofloxacin.
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To review evidence supporting use of fluoroquinolones as first line agents over other antibiotics for treating typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever).
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A diverse group of Escherichia coli are known as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) including O157:H7 and non-O157 EHEC. Enterohemorrhagic strains are related to sever clinical conditions in humans including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome, and most of the recorded outbreaks occurred due to O157: H7 E. coli. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of O157:H7 E. coli among healthy cattle in Golestan province.
Fecal coliform sensitivity analysis can identify effective antibiotic therapies for patients with antibiotic-resistant pouchitis. This targeted antibiotic approach is recommended in all patients who fail to respond to empiric antibiotic treatment or relapse after long-term antibiotic therapy.
There is concern that third-generation cephalosporins may not be effective in the treatment of acute otitis media due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Using the chinchilla animal model, we compared two third-generation cephalosporins, cefixime (Suprax) and ceftibuten (investigational), with ampicillin and saline controls in an investigator-blinded, randomized trial. Whereas the saline controls performed worse than all other groups, no significant differences were detected among the three antibiotics regarding the time required to sterilize the middle ear cleft, or the prevalence of positive cultures after 10 days of therapy. The statistical power of the comparisons of cefixime and ceftibuten with ampicillin were 98% and 67%, respectively. The results of this in vivo animal study fail to support the contention that the two third-generation cephalosporins investigated are not effective in the treatment of pneumococcal acute otitis media. Caution is advised when extrapolating these results to the general clinical setting.
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The effects of two kinds of oral cephalosporins, cefixime and cefdinir, on cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities in human hepatic microsomes were investigated. Both cefixime and cefdinir at 2 mM concentration neither inhibited nor stimulated CYP1A1/2-mediated 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, CYP2A6-mediated coumarin 7-hydroxylation, CYP2B6-mediated 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylation, CYP2C8/9-mediated tolbutamide methylhydroxylation, CYP2C19-mediated S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation, CYP2D6-mediated bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation, CYP2E1-mediated chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation, CYP3A4-mediated nifedipine oxidation, or CYP3A4-mediated testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation. The free fractions of cefixime and cefdinir in the incubation mixture, which were measured by ultracentrifugation, were 86.1-93.8% and 94.1-97.8%, respectively. These results suggest that both cefixime and cefdinir would not cause clinically significant interactions with other drugs, which are metabolized by CYPs, via the inhibition of metabolism.
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We used cefixime (CFIX), a newly developed oral cephalosporin antibiotic, to treat 21 children with various infections. The results are summarized as follows. The serum half-lives of CFIX after an administration of 6 mg/kg to each of 2 children were 2.56 and 2.79 hours. The serum concentrations were high enough to ensure the therapeutic response. The clinical response was "excellent" in 16 children and "good" in 5, with a 100% efficacy rate. No side effects were recorded. The only abnormal finding was slight eosinophilia in 1 child.
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Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common bacterial infection in mankind. The changing antimicrobial sensitivity in UTI demands use of appropriate antibiotics. This prospective study was performed in Comilla Medical Collage during the period of January 2011 to December 2011. Five hundred and fifty one urine specimens from clinically suspected UTI patients were examined by Semi quantitative culture method and their antimicrobial sensitivity patterns were determined by disc diffusion technique. The study was designed to isolate and identify the nature of bacteria in UTI with their sensitivity pattern to common antibiotics. Of the 551 tested sample 131 samples showed growth of pathogens among which the most prevalent were E. coli 98(75%) followed by Klebsiella pneumonia 14(10.7%) and Enterococcus 8(6%). The majority 96(73.3%) of the isolates were from female while the remaining were from male and this sex difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, nitrofurantoin, gentamycin, mecillinum and amoxyclav are found to be effective against 76-100% of the uropathogens. Most powerful antibiotics in our study were imipenem, meropenem, amikacin and nitrofurantoin which show their efficacy against 91-100% isolates. In more than 60% case shows their resistance against amoxycillin, nalidexic acid, cefixime, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole and cephalosporins which raises the question regarding rationality to empirically use of these antibiotics in UTI with out culture and sensitivity reports.
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Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported notifiable disease in the United States and is associated with serious health sequelae, including pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Treatment for gonorrhea has been complicated by antimicrobial resistance. Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to each of the antimicrobials that were previously recommended as first-line treatment regimens, and current treatment options are severely limited. This article summarizes the key questions and data that were discussed at the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Treatment Guidelines Expert Consultation meeting in April 2013, and the rationale for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention STD treatment guidelines for gonococcal infections in adolescents and adults. Key issues addressed include whether to change the dosage of ceftriaxone and azithromycin used in the recommended dual treatment regimen, whether to continue to list dual treatment with cefixime and azithromycin as an alternative treatment regimen, and management of gonococcal infections in persons with severe cephalosporin allergy or suspected treatment failure.
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We randomly allocated 80 children with suspected multidrug-resistant tyhpoid fever to therapy with either cefixime or ceftriaxone. Of these, an alternative diagnosis was subsequently made in 10 children and another 10 were excluded because cultures were negative. In 9 cases the typhoidal organisms isolated were susceptible to first-line drugs. In all, 50 children were randomly allocated to receive therapy with either intravenous ceftriaxone (65 mg/kg/day once daily, Group A, n = 25) or oral cefixime (10 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours, Group B, n = 25) for 14 days. The two groups were comparable in their clinical characteristics, duration and severity of illness at the time of admission. The time to defervescence was comparable in both groups (8.3 +/- 3.7 vs. 8.0 +/- 4.1 days, P = not significant). An equal number (3 in each group) failed to respond and underwent a change in therapy. Three children in Group A and one in Group B relapsed. No adverse effects were seen in either group during the course of therapy. Our data suggest that oral cefixime can be used as effectively as parenterally administered ceftriaxone for management of typhoid fever in children.